# Programming-Idioms.org

• The snippets are under the CC-BY-SA license.
• Consider printing in landscape mode
• or not printing at all, and keeping a bookmark.
Go Python
1
Print a literal string on standard output
`fmt.Println("Hello World")`
`print("Hello World")`
2
Loop to execute some code a constant number of times
```for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
fmt.Println("Hello")
}
```
```for i in range(10):
print("Hello")```
Alternative implementation:
`print("Hello\n"*10)`
Alternative implementation:
```import calendar
yy =int(input("enter year: "))
mm = int(input("enter month: "))
print(calendar.month(yy,mm)```
3
Like a function which doesn't return any value, thus has only side effects (e.g. Print to standard output)
```func finish(name string) {
fmt.Println("My job here is done. Good bye " + name)
}```
```def finish(name):
print(f'My job here is done. Goodbye {name}')```
Alternative implementation:
```def a():
pass```
4
```func square(x int) int {
return x*x
}```
```def square(x):
return x*x```
Alternative implementation:
```def square(x):
return x**2```
5
Declare a container type for two floating-point numbers x and y
```type Point struct {
x, y float64
}```
```@dataclass
class Point:
x: float
y: float```
6
Do something with each item x of an array-like collection items, regardless indexes.
```for _, x := range items {
doSomething(x)
}```
```for x in items:
doSomething( x )```
7
Print each index i with its value x from an array-like collection items
```for i, x := range items {
fmt.Printf("Item %d = %v \n", i, x)
}```
```for i, x in enumerate(items):
print i, x```
8
Create a new map object x, and provide some (key, value) pairs as initial content.
`x := map[string]int {"one": 1, "two": 2}`
`x = {"one" : 1, "two" : 2}`
9
The structure must be recursive because left child and right child are binary trees too. A node has access to children nodes, but not to its parent.
```type BinTree struct {
Value valueType
Left *BinTree
Right *BinTree
}
```
```class Node:
def __init__(self, data):
self.data = data
self.left = None
self.right = None```
Alternative implementation:
```class Node:
def __init__(self, data, left_child, right_child):
self.data = data
self._left_child = left_child
self._right_child = right_child```
10
Generate a random permutation of the elements of list x
```for i := range x {
j := rand.Intn(i + 1)
x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}```
Alternative implementation:
```y := make([]T, len(x))
perm := rand.Perm(len(x))
for i, v := range perm {
y[v] = x[i]
}```
Alternative implementation:
```rand.Shuffle(len(x), func(i, j int) {
x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
})```
Alternative implementation:
```for i := len(x) - 1; i > 0; i-- {
j := rand.Intn(i + 1)
x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}```
`shuffle(x)`
Alternative implementation:
`random.shuffle(list)`
11
List x must be non-empty.
`x[rand.Intn(len(x))]`
Alternative implementation:
```func pickT(x []T) T {
return x[rand.Intn(len(x))]
}```
`random.choice(x)`
12
Check if list contains a value x.
list is an iterable finite container.
```func Contains(list []T, x T) bool {
for _, item := range list {
if item == x {
return true
}
}
return false
}```
`x in list`
13
Access each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, and print them.
```for k, x := range mymap {
fmt.Println("Key =", k, ", Value =", x)
}```
```for k, v in mymap.items():
print(k, v)```
14
Pick a random number greater than or equals to a, strictly inferior to b. Precondition : a < b.
```func pick(a, b  float64)  float64 {
return a + (rand.Float64() * (b-a))
}```
```def pick(a,b):
return random.randrange(a, b)```
Alternative implementation:
`random.uniform(a,b)`
15
Pick a random integer greater than or equals to a, inferior or equals to b. Precondition : a < b.
```func pick(a,b int) int {
return a + rand.Intn(b-a+1)
}```
`random.randint(a,b)`
16
Call a function f on every node of binary tree bt, in depth-first infix order
```func (bt *BinTree) Dfs(f func(*BinTree)) {
if bt == nil {
return
}
bt.Left.Dfs(f)
f(bt)
bt.Right.Dfs(f)
}```
```def dfs(bt):
if bt is None:
return
dfs(bt.left)
f(bt)
dfs(bt.right)```
17
The structure must be recursive. A node may have zero or more children. A node has access to children nodes, but not to its parent.
```type Tree struct {
Key keyType
Deco valueType
Children []*Tree
}
```
```class Node:
def __init__(self, value, *children):
self.value = value
self.children = list(children)```
18
Call a function f on every node of a tree, in depth-first prefix order
```func (t *Tree) Dfs(f func(*Tree)) {
if t == nil {
return
}
f(t)
for _, child := range t.Children {
child.Dfs(f)
}
}```
```def DFS(f, root):
f(root)
for child in root:
DFS(f, child)```
19
Reverse the order of the elements of list x.
This may reverse "in-place" and destroy the original ordering.
```for i, j := 0, len(x)-1; i < j; i, j = i+1, j-1 {
x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}```
`x = reversed(x)`
Alternative implementation:
`y = x[::-1]`
Alternative implementation:
`x.reverse()`
20
Implement a function search which looks for item x in a 2D matrix m.
Return indices i, j of the matching cell.
Think of the most idiomatic way in the language to return the two values at the same time.
```func search(m [][]int, x int) (bool, int, int) {
for i := range m {
for j, v := range m[i] {
if v == x {
return true, i, j
}
}
}
return false, 0, 0
}```
```def search(m, x):
for idx, item in enumerate(m):
if x in item:
return idx, item.index(x)```
21
Swap values of variables a and b
`a, b = b, a`
`a, b = b, a`
22
Extract integer value i from its string representation s (in radix 10)
`i, err  := strconv.Atoi(s) `
Alternative implementation:
`i, err := strconv.ParseInt(s, 10, 0)`
`i = int(s)`
23
Given real number x, create its string representation s with 2 decimal digits following the dot.
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%.2f", x)`
`s =  '{:.2f}'.format(x)`
Alternative implementation:
`s = f'{x:.2f}'`
24
Declare a new string s and initialize it with the literal value "ネコ" (which means "cat" in japanese)
`s := "ネコ"`
`s = "ネコ"`
25
Share the string value "Alan" with an existing running process which will then display "Hello, Alan"
`ch <- "Alan"`
```q = Queue()

t.daemon = True
t.start()

q.put("Alan")```
26
Declare and initialize a matrix x having m rows and n columns, containing real numbers.
```const m, n = 3, 4
var x [m][n]float64```
Alternative implementation:
```func make2D(m, n int) [][]float64 {
buf := make([]float64, m*n)

x := make([][]float64, m)
for i := range x {
x[i] = buf[:n:n]
buf = buf[n:]
}
return x
}```
`x = [[0 for j in xrange(n)] for i in xrange(m)]`
Alternative implementation:
`[[0] * n for _ in range(m)]`
27
Declare and initialize a 3D array x, having dimensions boundaries m, n, p, and containing real numbers.
```const m, n, p = 2, 2, 3
var x [m][n][p]float64```
Alternative implementation:
```func make3D(m, n, p int) [][][]float64 {
buf := make([]float64, m*n*p)

x := make([][][]float64, m)
for i := range x {
x[i] = make([][]float64, n)
for j := range x[i] {
x[i][j] = buf[:p:p]
buf = buf[p:]
}
}
return x
}```
`x = [[[0 for k in range(p)] for j in range(n)] for i in range(m)]`
Alternative implementation:
`x = numpy.zeros((m,n,p))`
28
Sort elements of array-like collection items in ascending order of x.p, where p is a field of the type Item of the objects in items.
```type ItemPSorter []Item
func (s ItemPSorter) Len() int{ return len(s) }
func (s ItemPSorter) Less(i,j int) bool{ return s[i].p<s[j].p }
func (s ItemPSorter) Swap(i,j int) { s[i],s[j] = s[j],s[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item){
sorter := ItemPSorter(items)
sort.Sort(sorter)
}```
Alternative implementation:
```less := func(i, j int) bool {
return items[i].p < items[j].p
}
sort.Slice(items, less)```
`items = sorted(items, key=lambda x: x.p)`
Alternative implementation:
`items = sorted(items, key=attrgetter('p'))`
29
Remove i-th item from list items.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
Note that in most languages, the smallest valid value for i is 0.
`items = append(items[:i], items[i+1:]...)`
Alternative implementation:
```copy(items[i:], items[i+1:])
items[len(items)-1] = nil
items = items[:len(items)-1]```
`del items[i]`
30
Launch the concurrent execution of procedure f with parameter i from 1 to 1000.
Tasks are independent and f(i) doesn't return any value.
Tasks need not run all at the same time, so you may use a pool.
```wg := sync.WaitGroup{}
for i := 1; i <= 1000; i++ {
go func(j int) {
f(j)
wg.Done()
}(i)
}
wg.Wait()```
```pool = Pool()
for i in range(1, 1001):
pool.apply_async(f, [i])```
31
Create recursive function f which returns the factorial of non-negative integer i, calculated from f(i-1)
```func f(i int) int {
if i == 0 {
return 1
}
return i * f(i-1)
}```
```def f(i):
if i == 0:
return 1
else:
return i * f(i-1)```
32
Create function exp which calculates (fast) the value x power n.
x and n are non-negative integers.
```func exp(x, n int) int {
switch {
case n == 0:
return 1
case n == 1:
return x
case n%2 == 0:
return exp(x*x, n/2)
default:
return x * exp(x*x, (n-1)/2)
}
}```
```def exp(x, n):
return x**n
```
33
Assign variable x the new value f(x), making sure that no other thread may modify x between the read and the write.
```var lock sync.RWMutex

lock.Lock()
x = f(x)
lock.Unlock()```
```lock = threading.Lock()

lock.acquire()
try:
x = f(x)
finally:
lock.release()```
34
Declare and initialize a set x containing objects of type T.
`x := make(map[T]bool)`
Alternative implementation:
`x := make(map[T]struct{})`
```class T(object):
pass

x = set(T())```
35
Implement a function compose (A -> C) with parameters f (A -> B) and g (B -> C), which returns composition function g ∘ f
```func compose(f func(A) B, g func(B) C) func(A) C {
return func(x A) C {
return g(f(x))
}
}```
```def compose(f, g):
return lambda a: g(f(a))```
36
Implement a function compose which returns composition function g ∘ f for any functions f and g having exactly 1 parameter.
```func composeIntFuncs(f func(int) int, g func(int) int) func(int) int {
return func(x int) int {
return g(f(x))
}
}```
```def compose(f, g):
return lambda x: g(f(x))```
37
Transform a function that takes multiple arguments into a function for which some of the arguments are preset.
```type PayFactory func(Company, *Employee, *Employee) Payroll

type CustomPayFactory func(*Employee) Payroll

func CurryPayFactory(pf PayFactory,company Company, boss *Employee) CustomPayFactory {
return func(e *Employee) Payroll {
return pf(company, boss, e)
}
}```
```def f(a):
return lambda b: a+b

print (f(2)(1))

38
Find substring t consisting in characters i (included) to j (excluded) of string s.
Character indices start at 0 unless specified otherwise.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
`t := string([]rune(s)[i:j])`
`t = s[i:j]`
39
Set boolean ok to true if string word is contained in string s as a substring, or to false otherwise.
`ok := strings.Contains(s, word)`
`ok = word in s`
40
Declare a Graph data structure in which each Vertex has a collection of its neighbouring vertices.
```type Vertex struct{
Id int
Label string
Neighbours map[*Vertex]bool
}

type Graph []*Vertex```
```class Vertex(set): pass
class Graph(defaultdict):
def __init__(self, *paths):
self.default_factory = Vertex
for path in paths:
self.make_path(path)

def make_path(self, labels):
for l1, l2 in zip(labels, labels[1:]):

G = Graph((0, 1, 2, 3), (1, 4, 2))```
41
Create string t containing the same characters as string s, in reverse order.
Original string s must remain unaltered. Each character must be handled correctly regardless its number of bytes in memory.
```runes := []rune(s)
for i, j := 0, len(runes)-1; i < j; i, j = i+1, j-1 {
runes[i], runes[j] = runes[j], runes[i]
}
t := string(runes)```
`t = s.decode('utf8')[::-1].encode('utf8')`
Alternative implementation:
`t = s[::-1]`
42
Print each item v of list a which in not contained in list b.
For this, write an outer loop to iterate on a and an inner loop to iterate on b.
```mainloop:
for _, v := range a {
for _, w := range b {
if v == w {
continue mainloop
}
}
fmt.Println(v)
}```
```for v in a:
try:
for u in b:
if v == u:
raise Exception()
print(v)
except Exception:
continue
```
43
Look for a negative value v in 2D integer matrix m. Print it and stop searching.
```mainloop:
for i, line := range m {
for _, v := range line {
if v < 0 {
fmt.Println(v)
break mainloop
}
}
}```
```class BreakOuterLoop (Exception): pass

try:
position = None
for row in m:
for column in m[row]:
if m[row][column] == v:
position = (row, column)
raise BreakOuterLoop
except BreakOuterLoop:
pass```
Alternative implementation:
```def loop_breaking(m, v):
for i, row in enumerate(m):
for j, value in enumerate(row):
if value == v:
return (i, j)
return None

print(loop_breaking(([1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9]), 6))```
Alternative implementation:
```matrix = [[1,2,3],[4,-5,6],[7,8,9]]
try:
print(next(i for i in chain.from_iterable(matrix) if i < 0))
except StopIteration:
pass```
44
Insert element x at position i in list s. Further elements must be shifted to the right.
```s = append(s, 0)
copy(s[i+1:], s[i:])
s[i] = x```
`s.insert(i, x)`
45
Sleep for 5 seconds in current thread, before proceeding with next instructions.
`time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)`
`time.sleep(5)`
46
Create string t consisting of the 5 first characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
`t := string([]rune(s)[:5])`
`t = s[:5]`
47
Create string t consisting in the 5 last characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
`t := string([]rune(s)[len([]rune(s))-5:])`
`t = s[-5:]`
48
Assign to variable s a string literal consisting in several lines of text, including newlines.
```s := `Huey
Dewey
Louie````
```s = """Huey
Dewey
Louie"""```
49
Build list chunks consisting in substrings of input string s, separated by one or more space characters.
`chunks := strings.Split(s, " ")`
Alternative implementation:
`chunks := strings.Fields(s)`
`chunks = s.split()`
50
Write a loop which has no end clause.
```for {
// Do something
}```
```while True:
pass```
Alternative implementation:
```while True:
a=1
```
51
Determine whether map m contains an entry for key k
`_, ok := m[k]`
`k in m`
52
Determine whether map m contains an entry with value v, for some key.
```func containsValue(m map[K]T, v T) bool {
for _, x := range m {
if x == v {
return true
}
}
return false
}```
`v in m.values()`
53
Concatenate elements of string list x joined by the separator ", " to create a single string y.
`y := strings.Join(x, ", ")`
```y = ', '.join(x)
```
Alternative implementation:
`y = ', '.join(map(str, x))`
54
Calculate the sum s of integer list x.
```s := 0
for _, v := range x {
s += v
}```
`s = sum(x)`
55
Create the string representation s (in radix 10) of integer value i.
`s := strconv.Itoa(i)`
Alternative implementation:
`s := strconv.FormatInt(i, 10)`
Alternative implementation:
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%d", i)`
`s = str(i)`
56
Fork-join : launch the concurrent execution of procedure f with parameter i from 1 to 1000.
Tasks are independent and f(i) doesn't return any value.
Tasks need not run all at the same time, so you may use a pool.
Wait for the completion of the 1000 tasks and then print "Finished".
```var wg sync.WaitGroup
for i := 1; i <= 1000; i++ {
go func(i int) {
f(i)
wg.Done()
}(i)
}
wg.Wait()
fmt.Println("Finished")```
```def f(i):
i * i

with Pool(1000) as p:
p.map(func=f, iterable=range(1, 1001))

print('Finished')```
57
Create list y containing items from list x satisfying predicate p. Respect original ordering. Don't modify x in-place.
```y := make([]T, 0, len(x))
for _, v := range x{
if p(v){
y = append(y, v)
}
}```
`y = list(filter(p, x))`
Alternative implementation:
`y = [element for element in x if p(element)]`
58
Create string lines from the content of the file with filename f.
```b, err := ioutil.ReadFile(f)
if err != nil {
// Handle error...
}
lines := string(b)```
`lines = open(f).read()`
Alternative implementation:
```with open(f) as fo:
59
Print the message "x is negative" to standard error (stderr), with integer x value substitution (e.g. "-2 is negative").
`fmt.Fprintln(os.Stderr, x, "is negative")`
`print(x, "is negative", file=sys.stderr)`
Alternative implementation:
`print >>sys.stderr, "%s is negative" % x`
60
Assign to x the string value of the first command line parameter, after the program name.
`x := os.Args[1]`
`x = sys.argv[1]`
61
Assign to variable d the current date/time value, in the most standard type.
`var d time.Time = time.Now()`
`d = datetime.datetime.now()`
62
Set i to the position of string y inside string x, if exists.
`i := strings.Index(x, y)`
`i = x.find(y)`
63
Assign to x2 the value of string x with all occurrences of y replaced by z.
Assume occurrences of y are not overlapping.
`x2 := strings.Replace(x, y, z, -1)`
`x2 = x.replace(y, z)`
64
Assign to x the value 3^247
```x := new(big.Int)
x.Exp(big.NewInt(3), big.NewInt(247), nil)```
`x = 3**247`
65
From real value x in [0,1], create its percentage string representation s with one digit after decimal point. E.g. 0.15625 -> "15.6%"
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%.1f%%", 100.0*x)`
`s = '{:.1%}'.format(x)`
66
Calculate the result z of x power n, where x is a big integer and n is a positive integer.
```nb := big.NewInt(int64(n))
var z big.Int
z.Exp(x, nb, nil)```
`z = x**n`
67
Calculate binom(n, k) = n! / (k! * (n-k)!). Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
```z := new(big.Int)
z.Binomial(n, k)```
```def binom(n, k):
return math.factorial(n) // math.factorial(k) // math.factorial(n - k)```
Alternative implementation:
```def binom(n, k):
return math.comb(n, k)```
68
Create an object x to store n bits (n being potentially large).
`var x *big.Int = new(big.Int)`
Alternative implementation:
`x := make([]bool, n)`
Alternative implementation:
`x := make([]uint64, (n+63)/64)`
`x = bytearray(int(math.ceil(n / 8.0)))`
69
Use seed s to initialize a random generator.

If s is constant, the generator output will be the same each time the program runs. If s is based on the current value of the system clock, the generator output will be different each time.
`rand.Seed(s)`
Alternative implementation:
`r := rand.New(rand.NewSource(s))`
`rand = random.Random(s)`
70
Get the current datetime and provide it as a seed to a random generator. The generator sequence will be different at each run.
`rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())`
Alternative implementation:
`r := rand.New(rand.NewSource(time.Now().UnixNano()))`
`rand = random.Random()`
71
Basic implementation of the Echo program: Print all arguments except the program name, separated by space, followed by newline.
The idiom demonstrates how to skip the first argument if necessary, concatenate arguments as strings, append newline and print it to stdout.
```func main() {
fmt.Println(strings.Join(os.Args[1:], " "))
}```
`print ' '.join(sys.argv[1:])`
73
Create a factory named fact for any sub class of Parent and taking exactly one string str as constructor parameter.
```type ParentFactory func(string) Parent

var fact ParentFactory = func(str string) Parent {
return Parent{
name: str,
}
}```
```def fact(a_class, str_):
if issubclass(a_class, Parent):
return a_class(str_)```
74
Compute the greatest common divisor x of big integers a and b. Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
`x.GCD(nil, nil, a, b)`
`x = gcd(a, b)`
75
Compute the least common multiple x of big integers a and b. Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
```gcd.GCD(nil, nil, a, b)
x.Div(a, gcd).Mul(x, b)```
`x = (a*b)//gcd(a, b)`
76
Create the string s of integer x written in base 2.

E.g. 13 -> "1101"
`s := strconv.FormatInt(x, 2)`
Alternative implementation:
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%b", x)`
`s = '{:b}'.format(x)`
77
Declare a complex x and initialize it with value (3i - 2). Then multiply it by i.
```x := 3i - 2
x *= 1i```
```x = 3j-2
y = x * 1j```
78
Execute a block once, then execute it again as long as boolean condition c is true.
```for{
someThing()
someOtherThing()
if !c {
break
}
}```
Alternative implementation:
```for done := false; !done; {
someThing()
someOtherThing()
done = !c()
}```
```while True:
do_something()
if not c:
break```
79
Declare floating point number y and initialize it with the value of integer x .
`y := float64(x)`
`y = float(x)`
80
Declare integer y and initialize it with the value of floating point number x . Ignore non-integer digits of x .
Make sure to truncate towards zero: a negative x must yield the closest greater integer (not lesser).
`y := int(x)`
`y = int(x)`
81
Declare integer y and initialize it with the rounded value of floating point number x .
Ties (when the fractional part of x is exactly .5) must be rounded up (to positive infinity).
`y := int(math.Floor(x + 0.5))`
`y = int(x + 0.5)`
82
Find how many times string s contains substring t.
Specify if overlapping occurrences are counted.
`x := strings.Count(s, t)`
`count = s.count(t)`
83
Declare regular expression r matching strings "http", "htttp", "httttp", etc.
`r := regexp.MustCompile("htt+p")`
`r = re.compile(r"htt+p")`
84
Count number c of 1s in the integer i in base 2.

E.g. i=6 → c=2
```func PopCountUInt64(i uint64) (c int) {
i -= (i >> 1) & 0x5555555555555555
i = (i>>2)&0x3333333333333333 + i&0x3333333333333333
i += i >> 4
i &= 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f
i *= 0x0101010101010101
return int(i >> 56)
}

func PopCountUInt32(i uint32) (n int) {
i -= (i >> 1) & 0x55555555
i = (i>>2)&0x33333333 + i&0x33333333
i += i >> 4
i &= 0x0f0f0f0f
i *= 0x01010101
return int(i >> 24)
}```
Alternative implementation:
`c := bits.OnesCount(i)`
`c = bin(i).count("1")`
85
Write boolean function addingWillOverflow which takes two integers x, y and return true if (x+y) overflows.

An overflow may be above the max positive value, or below the min negative value.
```func willAddOverflow(a, b int64) bool {
return a > math.MaxInt64 - b
}```
```def adding_will_overflow(x,y):
return False```
86
Write boolean function multiplyWillOverflow which takes two integers x, y and return true if (x*y) overflows.

An overflow may be above the max positive value, or below the min negative value.
```func multiplyWillOverflow(x, y uint64) bool {
if x <= 1 || y <= 1 {
return false
}
d := x * y
return d/y != x
}```
```def multiplyWillOverflow(x,y):
return False```
87
Exit immediatly.
If some extra cleanup work is executed by the program runtime (not by the OS itself), describe it.
`os.Exit(0)`
`sys.exit(1)`
88
Create a new bytes buffer buf of size 1,000,000.
`buf := make([]byte, 1000000)`
`buf = bytearray(1000000)`
89
You've detected that the integer value of argument x passed to the current function is invalid. Write the idiomatic way to abort the function execution and signal the problem.
`return nil, fmt.Errorf("invalid value for x: %v", x)`
`raise ValueError("x is invalid")`
90
Expose a read-only integer x to the outside world while being writable inside a structure or a class Foo.
```type Foo struct {
x int
}

func (f *Foo) X() int {
return f.x
}```
```class Foo(object):
def __init__(self):
self._x = 0

@property
def x(self):
"""
Doc for x
"""
return self._x```
91
Read from file data.json and write its content into object x.
Assume the JSON data is suitable for the type of x.
```buffer, err := ioutil.ReadFile("data.json")
if err != nil {
return err
}
err = json.Unmarshal(buffer, &x)
if err != nil {
return err
}```
Alternative implementation:
```r, err := os.Open(filename)
if err != nil {
return err
}
decoder := json.NewDecoder(r)
err = decoder.Decode(&x)
if err != nil {
return err
}```
```with open("data.json", "r") as input:
92
Write content of object x into file data.json.
```buffer, err := json.MarshalIndent(x, "", "  ")
if err != nil {
return err
}
err = ioutil.WriteFile("data.json", buffer, 0644)```
```with open("data.json", "w") as output:
json.dump(x, output)```
93
Implement procedure control which receives one parameter f, and runs f.
```func control(f func()) {
f()
}```
```def control(f):
return f()```
94
Print the name of the type of x. Explain if it is a static type or dynamic type.

This may not make sense in all languages.
`fmt.Println(reflect.TypeOf(x))`
Alternative implementation:
`fmt.Printf("%T", x)`
`print(type(x))`
Alternative implementation:
`print(x.__class__)`
95
Assign to variable x the length (number of bytes) of the local file at path.
```info, err := os.Stat(path)
if err != nil {
return err
}
x := info.Size()```
`x = os.path.getsize(path)`
96
Set boolean b to true if string s starts with prefix prefix, false otherwise.
`b := strings.HasPrefix(s, prefix)`
`b = s.startswith(prefix)`
97
Set boolean b to true if string s ends with string suffix, false otherwise.
`b := strings.HasSuffix(s, suffix)`
`b = s.endswith(suffix)`
98
Convert a timestamp ts (number of seconds in epoch-time) to a date with time d. E.g. 0 -> 1970-01-01 00:00:00
`d := time.Unix(ts, 0)`
`d = datetime.date.fromtimestamp(ts)`
99
Assign to string x the value of fields (year, month, day) of date d, in format YYYY-MM-DD.
`x := d.Format("2006-01-02")`
```d = date(2016, 9, 28)
x = d.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')```
Alternative implementation:
```d = date.today()
x = d.isoformat()```
100
Sort elements of array-like collection items, using a comparator c.
```type ItemCSorter []Item
func (s ItemCSorter) Len() int           { return len(s) }
func (s ItemCSorter) Less(i, j int) bool { return c(s[i], s[j]) }
func (s ItemCSorter) Swap(i, j int)      { s[i], s[j] = s[j], s[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item) {
sorter := ItemCSorter(items)
sort.Sort(sorter)
}```
Alternative implementation:
```type ItemsSorter struct {
items []Item
c     func(x, y Item) bool
}

func (s ItemsSorter) Len() int           { return len(s.items) }
func (s ItemsSorter) Less(i, j int) bool { return s.c(s.items[i], s.items[j]) }
func (s ItemsSorter) Swap(i, j int)      { s.items[i], s.items[j] = s.items[j], s.items[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item, c func(x, y Item) bool) {
sorter := ItemsSorter{
items,
c,
}
sort.Sort(sorter)
}```
Alternative implementation:
```sort.Slice(items, func(i, j int) bool {
return c(items[i], items[j])
})```
`items.sort(c)`
101
Make an HTTP request with method GET to URL u, then store the body of the response in string s.
```res, err := http.Get(u)
if err != nil {
return err
}
res.Body.Close()
if err != nil {
return err
}
s := string(buffer)```
```with urllib.request.urlopen(u) as f:
```
102
Make an HTTP request with method GET to URL u, then store the body of the response in file result.txt. Try to save the data as it arrives if possible, without having all its content in memory at once.
```resp, err := http.Get(u)
if err != nil {
return err
}
defer resp.Body.Close()
if resp.StatusCode != 200 {
return fmt.Errorf("Status: %v", resp.Status)
}
out, err := os.Create("result.txt")
if err != nil {
return err
}
defer out.Close()
_, err = io.Copy(out, resp.Body)
if err != nil {
return err
}```
```filename, headers = urllib.request.urlretrieve(u, 'result.txt')
```
103
Read from file data.xml and write its content into object x.
Assume the XML data is suitable for the type of x.
```buffer, err := ioutil.ReadFile("data.xml")
if err != nil {
return err
}
err = xml.Unmarshal(buffer, &x)
if err != nil {
return err
}```
`x = lxml.etree.parse('data.xml')`
104
Write content of object x into file data.xml.
```buffer, err := xml.MarshalIndent(x, "", "  ")
if err != nil {
return err
}
err = ioutil.WriteFile("data.xml", buffer, 0644)```
```# Python 2.5 to 2.7
# Use pickle or marshall module
class TestClass(object):
a = None
b = None
c = None

def __init__(self, a, b, c):
self.a = a
self.b = b
self.c = c

tst = TestClass("var_a", "var_b", "var_c")
ser = pyx.serialize(obj=tst, enc="utf-8")
print(ser)```
105
Assign to string s the name of the currently executing program (but not its full path).
```path := os.Args[0]
s = filepath.Base(path)```
`s = sys.argv[0]`
106
Assign to string dir the path of the working directory.
(This is not necessarily the folder containing the executable itself)
`dir, err := os.Getwd()`
`dir = os.getcwd()`
107
Assign to string dir the path of the folder containing the currently running executable.
(This is not necessarily the working directory, though.)
```programPath := os.Args[0]
absolutePath, err := filepath.Abs(programPath)
if err != nil {
return err
}
dir := filepath.Dir(absolutePath)```
`dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__))`
108
Print the value of variable x, but only if x has been declared in this program.
This makes sense in some languages, not all of them. (Null values are not the point, rather the very existence of the variable.)
```if 'x' in locals():
print x```
109
Set n to the number of bytes of a variable t (of type T).
```var t T
tType := reflect.TypeOf(t)
n := tType.Size()```
`n = pympler.asizeof.asizeof(t)`
110
Set boolean blank to true if string s is empty, or null, or contains only whitespace ; false otherwise.
`blank := strings.TrimSpace(s) == ""`
`blank = s.strip() == ''`
111
From current process, run program x with command-line parameters "a", "b".
`err := exec.Command("x", "a", "b").Run()`
`subprocess.call(['x', 'a', 'b'])`
112
Print each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, in ascending order of k.
```keys := make([]string, 0, len(mymap))
for k := range mymap {
keys = append(keys, k)
}
sort.Strings(keys)

for _, k := range keys {
x := mymap[k]
fmt.Println("Key =", k, ", Value =", x)
}```
```for k in sorted(mymap):
print(mymap[k])
```
113
Print each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, in ascending order of x.
Note that multiple entries may exist for the same value x.
```type entry struct {
key   string
value int
}

type entries []entry
func (list entries) Len() int { return len(list) }
func (list entries) Less(i, j int) bool { return list[i].value < list[j].value }
func (list entries) Swap(i, j int) { list[i], list[j] = list[j], list[i] }

entries := make(entries, 0, len(mymap))
for k, x := range mymap {
entries = append(entries, entry{key: k, values: x})
}
sort.Sort(entries)

for _, e := range entries {
fmt.Println("Key =", e.key, ", Value =", e.value)
}```
Alternative implementation:
```type entry struct {
key   string
value int
}

entries := make([]entry, 0, len(mymap))
for k, x := range mymap {
entries = append(entries, entry{key: k, value: x})
}
sort.Slice(entries, func(i, j int) bool {
return entries[i].value < entries[j].value
})

for _, e := range entries {
fmt.Println("Key =", e.key, ", Value =", e.value)
}```
```for x, k in sorted((x, k) for k,x in mymap.items()):
print(k, x)
```
114
Set boolean b to true if objects x and y contain the same values, recursively comparing all referenced elements in x and y.
Tell if the code correctly handles recursive types.
`b := reflect.DeepEqual(x, y)`
`b = x == y`
115
Set boolean b to true if date d1 is strictly before date d2 ; false otherwise.
`b := d1.Before(d2)`
`b = d1 < d2`
116
Remove all occurrences of string w from string s1, and store the result in s2.
```s2 := strings.Replace(s1, w, "", -1)
```
`s2 = s1.replace(w, '')`
117
Set n to the number of elements of list x.
`n := len(x)`
`n = len(x)`
118
Create set y from list x.
x may contain duplicates. y is unordered and has no repeated values.
```y := make(map[T]struct{}, len(x))
for _, v := range x {
y[v] = struct{}{}
}```
`y = set(x)`
119
Remove duplicates from list x.
Explain if original order is preserved.
```y := make(map[T]struct{}, len(x))
for _, v := range x {
y[v] = struct{}{}
}
x2 := make([]T, 0, len(y))
for _, v := range x {
if _, ok := y[v]; ok {
x2 = append(x2, v)
delete(y, v)
}
}
x = x2```
Alternative implementation:
```seen := make(map[T]bool)
j := 0
for _, v := range x {
if !seen[v] {
x[j] = v
j++
seen[v] = true
}
}
x = x[:j]```
Alternative implementation:
```seen := make(map[T]bool)
j := 0
for _, v := range x {
if !seen[v] {
x[j] = v
j++
seen[v] = true
}
}
for i := j; i < len(x); i++ {
x[i] = nil
}
x = x[:j]```
`x = list(set(x))`
Alternative implementation:
`x = list(OrderedDict(zip(x, x)))`
120
Read an integer value from the standard input into variable n.
`_, err := fmt.Scan(&n)`
Alternative implementation:
`_, err := fmt.Scanf("%d", &n)`
`n = int(input("Input Prompting String: "))`
121
Listen UDP traffic on port p and read 1024 bytes into buffer b.
```ServerAddr,err := net.ResolveUDPAddr("udp",p)
if err != nil {
return err
}
if err != nil {
return err
}
defer ServerConn.Close()
if err != nil {
return err
}
if n<1024 {
return fmt.Errorf("Only %d bytes could be read.", n)
}```
```sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
sock.bind((UDP_IP, p))
while True:
122
Create an enumerated type Suit with 4 possible values SPADES, HEARTS, DIAMONDS, CLUBS.
```type Suit int

const (
Hearts
Diamonds
Clubs
)```
```class Suit:
SPADES, HEARTS, DIAMONDS, CLUBS = range(4)```
Alternative implementation:
```class Suit(Enum):
HEARTS = 2
DIAMONDS = 3
CLUBS = 4```
123
Verify that predicate isConsistent returns true, otherwise report assertion violation.
Explain if the assertion is executed even in production environment or not.
```if !isConsistent() {
panic("State consistency violated")
}```
`assert isConsistent`
124
Write function binarySearch which returns the index of an element having value x in sorted array a, or -1 if no such element.
```func binarySearch(a []T, x T) int {
imin, imax := 0, len(a)-1
for imin <= imax {
imid := (imin + imax) / 2
switch {
case a[imid] == x:
return imid
case a[imid] < x:
imin = imid + 1
default:
imax = imid - 1
}
}
return -1
}```
Alternative implementation:
```func binarySearch(a []int, x int) int {
i := sort.SearchInts(a, x)
if i < len(a) && a[i] == x {
return i
}
return -1
}```
Alternative implementation:
```func binarySearch(a []T, x T) int {
f := func(i int) bool { return a[i] >= x }
i := sort.Search(len(a), f)
if i < len(a) && a[i] == x {
return i
}
return -1
}```
```def binarySearch(a, x):
i = bisect.bisect_left(a, x)
return i if i != len(a) and a[i] == x else -1
```
125
measure the duration t, in nano seconds, of a call to the function foo. Print this duration.
```t1 := time.Now()
foo()
t := time.Since(t1)
ns := int64(t / time.Nanosecond)
fmt.Printf("%dns\n", ns)```
Alternative implementation:
```t1 := time.Now()
foo()
t := time.Since(t1)
ns := t.Nanoseconds()
fmt.Printf("%dns\n", ns)```
```t1 = time.perf_counter()
foo()
t2 = time.perf_counter()
print('Seconds:', t2 - t1)```
126
Write a function foo that returns a string and a boolean value.
```func foo() (string, bool) {
return "Too good to be", true
}```
```def foo():
return 'string', True
```
127
Import the source code for the function foo body from a file "foobody.txt" . The declaration must not reside in the external file.
`foo = imp.load_module('foobody', 'foobody.txt').foo`
128
Call a function f on every node of a tree, in breadth-first prefix order
```func (root *Tree) Bfs(f func(*Tree)) {
if root == nil {
return
}
queue := []*Tree{root}
for len(queue) > 0 {
t := queue[0]
queue = queue[1:]
f(t)
queue = append(queue, t.Children...)
}
}```
```def BFS(f, root):
Q = [root]
while Q:
n = Q.pop(0)
f(n)
for child in n:
if not n.discovered:
n.discovered = True
Q.append(n)```
129
Call a function f on every vertex accessible from vertex start, in breadth-first prefix order
```func (start *Vertex) Bfs(f func(*Vertex)) {
queue := []*Vertex{start}
seen := map[*Vertex]bool{start: true}
for len(queue) > 0 {
v := queue[0]
queue = queue[1:]
f(v)
for next, isEdge := range v.Neighbours {
if isEdge && !seen[next] {
queue = append(queue, next)
seen[next] = true
}
}
}
}```
```def breadth_first(start, f):
seen = set()
q = deque([start])
while q:
vertex = q.popleft()
f(vertex)
q.extend(v for v in vertex.adjacent if v not in seen)```
130
Call a function f on every vertex accessible for vertex v, in depth-first prefix order
```func (v *Vertex) Dfs(f func(*Vertex), seen map[*Vertex]bool) {
seen[v] = true
f(v)
for next, isEdge := range v.Neighbours {
if isEdge && !seen[next] {
next.Dfs(f, seen)
}
}
}```
```def depth_first(start, f):
seen = set()
stack = [start]
while stack:
vertex = stack.pop()
f(vertex)
stack.extend(
v for v in vertex.adjacent if v not in seen
)```
131
Execute f1 if condition c1 is true, or else f2 if condition c2 is true, or else f3 if condition c3 is true.
Don't evaluate a condition when a previous condition was true.
```switch {
case c1:
f1()
case c2:
f2()
case c3:
f3()
}```
`f1 if c1 else f2 if c2 else f3 if c3 else None`
Alternative implementation:
```if c1:
f1()
elif c2:
f2()
elif c3:
f3()```
132
Run procedure f, and return the duration of the execution of f.
```func clock(f func()) time.Duration {
t := time.Now()
f()
return time.Since(t)
}```
`duration = timeit.timeit("f()", setup="from __main__ import f")`
Alternative implementation:
```start = time.time()
f()
end = time.time()
return end - start```
133
Set boolean ok to true if string word is contained in string s as a substring, even if the case doesn't match, or to false otherwise.
```lowerS, lowerWord := strings.ToLower(s), strings.ToLower(word)
ok := strings.Contains(lowerS, lowerWord)```
`ok = word.lower() in s.lower()`
134
Declare and initialize a new list items, containing 3 elements a, b, c.
`items := []T{a, b, c}`
`items = [a, b, c]`
135
Remove at most 1 item from list items, having value x.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
If there are several occurrences of x in items, remove only one of them. If x is absent, keep items unchanged.
```for i, y := range items {
if y == x {
items = append(items[:i], items[i+1:]...)
break
}
}```
Alternative implementation:
```for i, y := range items {
if y == x {
copy(items[i:], items[i+1:])
items[len(items)-1] = nil
items = items[:len(items)-1]
break
}
}```
`items.remove(x)`
136
Remove all occurrences of value x from list items.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
```items2 := make([]T, 0, len(items))
for _, v := range items {
if v != x {
items2 = append(items2, v)
}
}```
Alternative implementation:
```j := 0
for i, v := range items {
if v != x {
items[j] = items[i]
j++
}
}
items = items[:j]```
Alternative implementation:
```j := 0
for i, v := range items {
if v != x {
items[j] = items[i]
j++
}
}
for k := j; k < len(items); k++ {
items[k] = nil
}
items = items[:j]```
`newlist = [item for item in items if item != x]`
137
Set boolean b to true if string s contains only characters in range '0'..'9', false otherwise.
```b := true
for _, c := range s {
if c < '0' || c > '9' {
b = false
break
}
}```
Alternative implementation:
```isNotDigit := func(c rune) bool { return c < '0' || c > '9' }
b := strings.IndexFunc(s, isNotDigit) == -1```
```b = s.isdigit()
```
138
Create a new temporary file on filesystem.
`tmpfile, err := ioutil.TempFile("", "")`
`file = tempfile.TemporaryFile()`
139
Create a new temporary folder on filesystem, for writing.
`dir, err := ioutil.TempDir("", "")`
`td = tempfile.TemporaryDirectory()`
140
Delete from map m the entry having key k.

Explain what happens if k is not an existing key in m.
`delete(m, k)`
`m.pop(k, None)`
141
Iterate in sequence over the elements of the list items1 then items2. For each iteration print the element.
```for _, v := range items1 {
fmt.Println(v)
}
for _, v := range items2 {
fmt.Println(v)
}```
```for x in items1 + items2:
print(x)
```
142
Assign to string s the hexadecimal representation (base 16) of integer x.

E.g. 999 -> "3e7"
`s := strconv.FormatInt(x, 16)`
Alternative implementation:
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%x", x)`
`s = hex(x)`
143
Iterate alternatively over the elements of the list items1 and items2. For each iteration, print the element.

Explain what happens if items1 and items2 have different size.
```for i := 0; i < len(items1) || i < len(items2); i++ {
if i < len(items1) {
fmt.Println(items1[i])
}
if i < len(items2) {
fmt.Println(items2[i])
}
}```
`for pair in zip(item1, item2): print(pair)`
144
Set boolean b to true if file at path fp exists on filesystem; false otherwise.

Beware that you should never do this and then in the next instruction assume the result is still valid, this is a race condition on any multitasking OS.
```_, err := os.Stat(fp)
b := !os.IsNotExist(err)```
`b = os.path.exists(fp)`
Alternative implementation:
`b = Path(fp).exists()`
145
Print message msg, prepended by current date and time.

Explain what behavior is idiomatic: to stdout or stderr, and what the date format is.
`log.Println(msg)`
```logging.basicConfig(stream=sys.stdout, level=logging.DEBUG, format="%(asctime)-15s %(message)s")
logger = logging.getLogger('NAME OF LOGGER')

logger.info(msg)```
146
Extract floating point value f from its string representation s
`f, err := strconv.ParseFloat(s, 64)`
```s = u'545,2222'
locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, 'de')
f = locale.atof(s)```
Alternative implementation:
`f = float(s)`
Alternative implementation:
`f = float(s)`
147
Create string t from string s, keeping only ASCII characters
```re := regexp.MustCompile("[[:^ascii:]]")
t := re.ReplaceAllLiteralString(s, "")```
Alternative implementation:
```t := strings.Map(func(r rune) rune {
if r > unicode.MaxASCII {
return -1
}
return r
}, s)```
`t = re.sub('[^\u0000-\u007f]', '',  s)`
148
Read a list of integer numbers from the standard input, until EOF.
```var ints []int
s := bufio.NewScanner(os.Stdin)
for s.Scan() {
i, err := strconv.Atoi(s.Text())
if err == nil {
ints = append(ints, i)
}
}```
`list(map(int, input().split())`
Alternative implementation:
`numbers = [int(x) for x in input().split()]`
149
As an exception, this content is not under license CC BY-SA 3.0 like the rest of this website.
` `
150
Remove last character from string p, if this character is a slash /.
`p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, "/")`
`p = p.rstrip("/")`
151
Remove last character from string p, if this character is the file path separator of current platform.

Note that this also transforms unix root path "/" into empty string!
```sep := fmt.Sprintf("%c", os.PathSeparator)
p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, sep)```
Alternative implementation:
```sep := fmt.Sprintf("%c", filepath.Separator)
p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, sep)```
```if p.endswith(os.sep):
p = p[:-1]```
152
Create string s containing only the character c.
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%c", c)`
`s = c`
153
Create string t as the concatenation of string s and integer i.
`t := fmt.Sprintf("%s%d", s, i)`
`t = '{}{}'.format(s,i)`
154
Find color c, the average between colors c1, c2.

c, c1, c2 are strings of hex color codes: 7 chars, beginning with a number sign # .
Assume linear computations, ignore gamma corrections.
```r1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[1:3], 16, 0)
r2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[1:3], 16, 0)
r := (r1 + r2) / 2

g1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[3:5], 16, 0)
g2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[3:5], 16, 0)
g := (g1 + g2) / 2

b1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[5:7], 16, 0)
b2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[5:7], 16, 0)
b := (b1 + b2) / 2

c := fmt.Sprintf("#%02X%02X%02X", r, g, b)```
Alternative implementation:
```var buf [7]byte
buf[0] = '#'
for i := 0; i < 3; i++ {
sub1 := c1[1+2*i : 3+2*i]
sub2 := c2[1+2*i : 3+2*i]
v1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(sub1, 16, 0)
v2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(sub2, 16, 0)
v := (v1 + v2) / 2
sub := fmt.Sprintf("%02X", v)
copy(buf[1+2*i:3+2*i], sub)
}
c := string(buf[:])```
```r1, g1, b1 = [int(c1[p:p+2], 16) for p in range(1,6,2)]
r2, g2, b2 = [int(c2[p:p+2], 16) for p in range(1,6,2)]
c = '#{:02x}{:02x}{:02x}'.format((r1+r2) // 2, (g1+g2) //2, (b1+b2)// 2)```
Alternative implementation:
```class RGB(numpy.ndarray):
@classmethod
def from_str(cls, rgbstr):
return numpy.array([
int(rgbstr[i:i+2], 16)
for i in range(1, len(rgbstr), 2)
]).view(cls)

def __str__(self):
self = self.astype(numpy.uint8)
return '#' + ''.join(format(n, 'x') for n in self)

c1 = RGB.from_str('#a1b1c1')
print(c1)
c2 = RGB.from_str('#1A1B1C')
print(c2)

print((c1 + c2) / 2)```
155
Delete from filesystem the file having path filepath.
`err := os.Remove(filepath)`
```path = pathlib.Path(_filepath)
156
Assign to string s the value of integer i in 3 decimal digits. Pad with zeros if i < 100. Keep all digits if i1000.
`s := fmt.Sprintf("%03d", i)`
`s = format('03d', i)`
157
Initialize a constant planet with string value "Earth".
`const planet = "Earth"`
`PLANET = 'Earth'`
158
Create a new list y from randomly picking exactly k elements from list x.

It is assumed that x has at least k elements.
Each element must have same probability to be picked.
Each element from x must be picked at most once.
Explain if the original ordering is preserved or not.
```y := make([]T, k)
perm := rand.Perm(len(x))
for i, v := range perm[:k] {
y[i] = x[v]
}```
`y = random.sample(x, k)`
159
Define a Trie data structure, where entries have an associated value.
(Not all nodes are entries)
```type Trie struct {
c        rune
children map[rune]*Trie
isEntry  bool
value    V
}```
```class Trie:
def __init__(self, prefix, value=None):
self.prefix = prefix
self.children = []
self.value = value```
160
Execute f32() if platform is 32-bit, or f64() if platform is 64-bit.
This can be either a compile-time condition (depending on target) or a runtime detection.
```if strconv.IntSize==32 {
f32()
}
if strconv.IntSize==64 {
f64()
}```
```if sys.maxsize > 2**32:
f64()
else:
f32()

```
161
Multiply all the elements of the list elements by a constant c
```for i := range elements {
elements[i] *= c
}```
`elements = [c * x for x in elements]`
162
execute bat if b is a program option and fox if f is a program option.
```var b = flag.Bool("b", false, "Do bat")
var f = flag.Bool("f", false, "Do fox")

func main() {
flag.Parse()
if *b {
bar()
}
if *f {
fox()
}
}```
```if 'b' in sys.argv[1:]: bat()
if 'f' in sys.argv[1:]: fox()
```
Alternative implementation:
```options = {
'b': bat
'f': fox
}

for option, function in options:
if option in sys.argv[1:]:
function()```
163
Print all the list elements, two by two, assuming list length is even.
```for i := 0; i+1 < len(list); i += 2 {
fmt.Println(list[i], list[i+1])
}```
```for x in zip(list[::2], list[1::2]):
print(x)```
Alternative implementation:
```def pairwise(iterable):
"s -> (s0,s1), (s1,s2), (s2, s3), ..."
a, b = tee(iterable)
next(b, None)
return zip(a, b)

for a, b in pairwise(list):
print(a, b)```
164
Open the URL s in the default browser.
Set boolean b to indicate whether the operation was successful.
`b := open.Start(s) == nil`
Alternative implementation:
```func openbrowser(url string) {
var err error

switch runtime.GOOS {
case "linux":
err = exec.Command("xdg-open", url).Start()
case "windows":
err = exec.Command("rundll32", "url.dll,FileProtocolHandler", url).Start()
case "darwin":
err = exec.Command("open", url).Start()
default:
err = fmt.Errorf("unsupported platform")
}
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}

}```
`webbrowser.open(s)`
165
Assign to variable x the last element of list items.
`x := items[len(items)-1]`
`x = items[-1]`
166
Create list ab containing all the elements of list a, followed by all elements of list b.
`ab := append(a, b...)`
Alternative implementation:
```var ab []T
ab = append(append(ab, a...), b...)```
Alternative implementation:
```ab := make([]T, len(a)+len(b))
copy(ab, a)
copy(ab[len(a):], b)```
`ab = a + b`
167
Create string t consisting of string s with its prefix p removed (if s starts with p).
`t := strings.TrimPrefix(s, p)`
`t = s[s.startswith(p) and len(p):]`
Alternative implementation:
`t = s.lstrip(p)`
168
Create string t consisting of string s with its suffix w removed (if s ends with w).
`t := strings.TrimSuffix(s, w)`
`t = s.rsplit(w, 1)[0]`
Alternative implementation:
`t = s.rstrip(w)`
169
Assign to integer n the number of characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
n can be different from the number of bytes of s.
`n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s)`
`n = len(s)`
170
Set n to the number of elements stored in mymap.

This is not always equal to the map capacity.
`n := len(mymap)`
`n = len(mymap)`
171
Append element x to the list s.
`s = append(s, x)`
`s.append(x)`
172
Insert value v for key k in map m.
`m[k] = v`
`m[k] = v`
173
Number will be formatted with a comma separator between every group of thousands.
```p := message.NewPrinter(language.English)
s := p.Sprintf("%d\n", 1000)```
Alternative implementation:
```n := strconv.Itoa(23489)
s := thousands.Separate(n, "en")```
`f'{1000:,}'`
Alternative implementation:
`format(1000, ',')`
Alternative implementation:
`'{:,}'.format(1000)`
174
Make a HTTP request with method POST to URL u
`response, err := http.Post(u, contentType, body)`
Alternative implementation:
`response, err := http.PostForm(u, formValues)`
```data = parse.urlencode(<your data dict>).encode()
req =  request.Request(u, data=data, method="POST")
resp = request.urlopen(req)```
175
From array a of n bytes, build the equivalent hex string s of 2n digits.
Each byte (256 possible values) is encoded as two hexadecimal characters (16 possible values per digit).
`s := hex.EncodeToString(a)`
`s = a.hex()`
176
From hex string s of 2n digits, build the equivalent array a of n bytes.
Each pair of hexadecimal characters (16 possible values per digit) is decoded into one byte (256 possible values).
```a, err := hex.DecodeString(s)
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}```
`a = bytearray.fromhex(s)`
177
Construct a list L that contains all filenames that have the extension ".jpg" , ".jpeg" or ".png" in directory D and all it's subdirectories.
```L := []string{}
err := filepath.Walk(D, func(path string, info os.FileInfo, err error) error {
if err != nil {
fmt.Printf("failure accessing a path %q: %v\n", path, err)
return err
}
for _, ext := range []string{".jpg", ".jpeg", ".png"} {
if strings.HasSuffix(path, ext) {
L = append(L, path)
break
}
}
return nil
})```
```extensions = [".jpg", ".jpeg", ".png"]
L = [f for f in os.listdir(D) if os.path.splitext(f)[1] in extensions]
```
Alternative implementation:
`filtered_files = ["{}/{}".format(dirpath, filename) for dirpath, _, filenames in os.walk(D) for filename in filenames if re.match(r'^.*\.(?:jpg|jpeg|png)\$', filename)]`
Alternative implementation:
`list(itertools.chain(*(glob.glob("*/**.%s" % ext) for ext in ["jpg", "jpeg", "png"])))`
178
Set boolean b to true if if the point with coordinates (x,y) is inside the rectangle with coordinates (x1,y1,x2,y2) , or to false otherwise.
Describe if the edges are considered to be inside the rectangle.
```p := image.Pt(x, y)
r := image.Rect(x1, y1, x2, y2)
b := p.In(r)```
`b = (x1 < x < x2) and (y1 < y < y2)`
179
Return the center c of the rectangle with coördinates(x1,y1,x2,y2)
`c := image.Pt((x1+x2)/2, (y1+y2)/2)`
`center = ((x1+x2)/2, (y1+y2)/2)`
Alternative implementation:
```Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
center = Point((x1+x2)/2, (y1+y2)/2)```
180
Create list x containing the contents of directory d.

x may contain files and subfolders.
No recursive subfolder listing.
`x, err := ioutil.ReadDir(d)`
`x = os.listdir(d)`
182
Output the source of the program.
```package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
fmt.Printf("%s%c%s%c\n", s, 0x60, s, 0x60)
}

var s = `package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
fmt.Printf("%s%c%s%c\n", s, 0x60, s, 0x60)
}

var s = ````
```s = 's = %r\nprint(s%%s)'
print(s%s)```
183
Make a HTTP request with method PUT to URL u
```req, err := http.NewRequest("PUT", u, body)
if err != nil {
return err
}
req.ContentLength = contentLength
response, err := http.DefaultClient.Do(req)```
```content_type = 'text/plain'
data = {}

status_code, content = r.status_code, r.content
```
184
Assign to variable t a string representing the day, month and year of the day after the current date.
`t := time.Now().Add(24 * time.Hour).Format("2006-01-02")`
`date.today() + timedelta(days=1)`
185
Schedule the execution of f(42) in 30 seconds.
```timer := time.AfterFunc(
30*time.Second,
func() {
f(42)
})```
Alternative implementation:
```go func() {
time.Sleep(30 * time.Second)
f(42)
}()```
```timer = threading.Timer(30.0, f, args=(42,) )
timer.start()
```
186
Exit a program cleanly indicating no error to OS
`os.Exit(0)`
Alternative implementation:
`defer os.Exit(0)`
`sys.exit(0)`
187
Disjoint Sets hold elements that are partitioned into a number of disjoint (non-overlapping) sets.
```class UnionFind:
def __init__(self, size):
self.rank = [0] * size
self.p = [i for i in range(size)]

def find_set(self, i):
if self.p[i] == i:
return i
else:
self.p[i] = self.find_set(self.p[i])
return self.p[i]

def is_same_set(self, i, j):
return self.find_set(i) == self.find_set(j)

def union_set(self, i, j):
if not self.is_same_set(i, j):
x, y = self.find_set(i), self.find_set(j)
```
188
Perform matrix multiplication of a real matrix a with nx rows and ny columns, a real matrix b with ny rows and nz columns and assign the value to a real matrix c with nx rows and nz columns.
```c := new(mat.Dense)
c.Mul(a, b)```
```c = a @ b
```
Alternative implementation:
`c = np.matmul(a, b)`
189
Produce a new list y containing the result of function T applied to all elements e of list x that match the predicate P.
```var y []Result
for _, e := range x {
if P(e) {
y = append(y, T(e))
}
}```
`y = [T(e) for e in x if P(e)]`
Alternative implementation:
`y = list(map(T, filter(P, x)))`
190
Declare an external C function with the prototype

void foo(double *a, int n);

and call it, passing an array (or a list) of size 10 to a and 10 to n.

Use only standard features of your language.
```// void foo(double *a, int n);
// double a[] = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9};
import "C"

C.foo(C.a, 10)```
191
Given a one-dimensional array a, check if any value is larger than x, and execute the procedure f if that is the case
```for _, v := range a {
if v > x {
f()
break
}
}```
```if any(v > x for v in a):
f()```
192
Declare a real variable a with at least 20 digits; if the type does not exist, issue an error at compile time.
`a, _, err := big.ParseFloat("123456789.123456789123465789", 10, 200, big.ToZero)`
`a = decimal.Decimal('1234567890.123456789012345')`
193
Declare two two-dimensional arrays a and b of dimension n*m and m*n, respectively. Assign to b the transpose of a (i.e. the value with index interchange).
```a = np.array([[1,2], [3,4], [5,6]])
b = a.T
```
194
Given an array a, set b to an array which has the values of a along its second dimension shifted by n. Elements shifted out should come back at the other end.
`b = np.roll(a, m, axis=1)`
195
Pass an array a of real numbers to the procedure (resp. function) foo. Output the size of the array, and the sum of all its elements when each element is multiplied with the array indices i and j (assuming they start from one).
```def foo(a):
print(len(a))
print(sum(
x*(i+1) + y*(i+1)*2 for i, (x, y) in enumerate(a)
))```
196
Given an integer array a of size n, pass the first, third, fifth and seventh, ... up to the m th element to a routine foo which sets all these elements to 42.
```def foo(data, r):
for i in r: data[i] = 42
return

foo(a, range(0, m+1, 2))```
197
Retrieve the contents of file at path into a list of strings lines, in which each element is a line of the file.
```func readLines(path string) ([]string, error) {
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
lines := strings.Split(string(b), "\n")
return lines, nil
}```
```with open(path) as f:
198
Abort program execution with error condition x (where x is an integer value)
`os.Exit(x)`
`sys.exit(x)`
199
Truncate a file F at the given file position.
`err := os.Truncate(F, position)`
`F.truncate(F.tell())`
200
Returns the hypotenuse h of the triangle where the sides adjacent to the square angle have lengths x and y.
`h := math.Hypot(x, y)`
`h = math.hypot(x, y)`
201
Calculate n, the Euclidean norm of data (an array or list of floating point values).
`np.linalg.norm(data)`
202
Calculate the sum of squares s of data, an array of floating point values.
```var s float64
for _, d := range data {
s += math.Pow(d, 2)
}```
`s = sum(i**2 for i in data)`
203
Calculate the mean m and the standard deviation s of the list of floating point values data.
`m, s := stat.MeanStdDev(data, nil)`
```m = statistics.mean(data)
sd = statistics.stdev(data)
```
204
Given a real number a, print the fractional part and the exponent of the internal representation of that number. For 3.14, this should print (approximately)

0.785 2
`fmt.Println(math.Frexp(a))`
`print(math.frexp(a))`
205
Read an environment variable with the name "FOO" and assign it to the string variable foo. If it does not exist or if the system does not support environment variables, assign a value of "none".
```foo, ok := os.LookupEnv("FOO")
if !ok {
foo = "none"
}```
Alternative implementation:
```foo := os.Getenv("FOO")
if foo == "" {
foo = "none"
}```
```try:
foo = os.environ['FOO']
except KeyError:
foo = None```
Alternative implementation:
`foo = getenv('FOO')`
206
Execute different procedures foo, bar, baz and barfl if the string str contains the name of the respective procedure. Do it in a way natural to the language.
```switch str {
case "foo":
foo()
case "bar":
bar()
case "baz":
baz()
case "barfl":
barfl()
}```
```switch = {'foo': foo,
'bar': bar,
'baz': baz,
'barf1': barf1
}

switch_funct = switch.get(string)
if switch_funct : switch_funct()
```
207
Allocate a list a containing n elements (n assumed to be too large for a stack) that is automatically deallocated when the program exits the scope it is declared in.
`a := make([]T, n)`
```def func():
a = [0] * n
# local variable automatically deallocated at end of function
return```
208
Given the arrays a,b,c,d of equal length and the scalar e, calculate a = e*(a+b*c+cos(d)).
Store the results in a.
```func applyFormula(a, b, c, d []float64, e float64) {
for i, v := range a {
a[i] = e * (v + b[i] + c[i] + math.Cos(d[i]))
}
}```
```for i in xrange(len(a)):
a[i] = e*(a[i] + b[i] + c[i] + math.cos(a[i]))
```
209
Declare a type t which contains a string s and an integer array n with variable size, and allocate a variable v of type t. Allocate v.s and v.n and set them to the values "Hello, world!" for s and [1,4,9,16,25], respectively. Deallocate v, automatically deallocating v.s and v.n (no memory leaks).
```type t struct {
s string
n []int
}

v := t{
s: "Hello, world!",
n: []int{1, 4, 9, 16, 25},
}```
```class T:
def __init__(self, s, n):
self.s = s
self.n = n
return

v = T('hello world', [1, 4,  9, 16, 25])
del v
```
210
Assign, at runtime, the compiler version and the options the program was compilerd with to variables version and options, respectively, and print them. For interpreted languages, substitute the version of the interpreter.

Example output:

GCC version 10.0.0 20190914 (experimental)
-mtune=generic -march=x86-64
`version := runtime.Version()`
```version = sys.version
options = sys.flags```
211
Create the folder at path on the filesystem
`err := os.Mkdir(path, os.ModeDir)`
Alternative implementation:
`err := os.MkdirAll(path, os.ModeDir)`
`os.mkdir(path)`
212
Set boolean b to true if path exists on the filesystem and is a directory; false otherwise.
```info, err := os.Stat(path)
b := !os.IsNotExist(err) && info.IsDir()```
`b = os.isdir(path)`
213
Compare four strings in pair-wise variations. The string comparison can be implemented with an equality test or a containment test, must be case-insensitive and must apply Unicode casefolding.
```strings = ['ᾲ στο διάολο',
'ὰι στο διάολο',
'Ὰͅ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΆΟΛΟ',
'ᾺΙ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΆΟΛΟ']

for a, b in itertools.combinations(strings, 2):
print(a, b, a.casefold() == b.casefold())
```
214
Append extra character c at the end of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.
```if n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s); n < m {
s += strings.Repeat(c, m-n)
}```
`s = s.ljust(m, c)`
215
Prepend extra character c at the beginning of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.
```if n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s); n < m {
s = strings.Repeat(c, m-n) + s
}```
`s = s.rjust(m, c)`
216
Add extra character c at the beginning and ending of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
After the padding the original content of s should be at the center of the result.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.

E.g. with s="abcd", m=10 and c="X" the result should be "XXXabcdXXX".
`s = s.center(m, c)`
217
Create a zip-file with filename name and add the files listed in list to that zip-file.
```buf := new(bytes.Buffer)
w := zip.NewWriter(buf)
for _, filename := range list {
input, err := os.Open(filename)
if err != nil {
return err
}
output, err := w.Create(filename)
if err != nil {
return err
}
_, err = io.Copy(output, input)
if err != nil {
return err
}
}

err := w.Close()
if err != nil {
return err
}

err = ioutil.WriteFile(name, buf.Bytes(), 0777)
if err != nil {
return err
}```
```with zipfile.ZipFile(name, 'w', zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED) as zip:
for file in list_:
zip.write(file)```
218
Create list c containing all unique elements that are contained in both lists a and b.
c should not contain any duplicates, even if a and b do.
The order of c doesn't matter.
```seta := make(map[T]bool, len(a))
for _, x := range a {
seta[x] = true
}
setb := make(map[T]bool, len(a))
for _, y := range b {
setb[y] = true
}

var c []T
for x := range seta {
if setb[x] {
c = append(c, x)
}
}```
`c = list(set(a) & set(b))`
Alternative implementation:
`c = list(set(a).intersection(b))`
219
Create string t from the value of string s with each sequence of spaces replaced by a single space.

Explain if only the space characters will be replaced, or the other whitespaces as well: tabs, newlines.
```whitespaces := regexp.MustCompile(`\s+`)
t := whitespaces.ReplaceAllString(s, " ")```
`t = re.sub(' +', ' ', s)`
220
Create t consisting of 3 values having different types.

Explain if the elements of t are strongly typed or not.
```t := []interface{}{
2.5,
"hello",
make(chan int),
}```
`t = (2.5, "hello", -1)`
221
Create string t from string s, keeping only digit characters 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
```re := regexp.MustCompile("[^\\d]")
t := re.ReplaceAllLiteralString(s, "")```
`t = re.sub(r"\D", "", s)`
222
Set i to the first index in list items at which the element x can be found, or -1 if items does not contain x.
```i := -1
for j, e := range items {
if e == x {
i = j
break
}
}```
`i = items.index(x) if x in items else -1`
223
Loop through list items checking a condition. Do something else if no matches are found.

A typical use case is looping through a series of containers looking for one that matches a condition. If found, an item is inserted; otherwise, a new container is created.

These are mostly used as an inner nested loop, and in a location where refactoring inner logic into a separate function reduces clarity.
```items := []string{"foo", "bar", "baz", "qux"}

for _, item := range items {
if item == "baz" {
fmt.Println("found it")
goto forelse
}
}
{
fmt.Println("never found it")
}
forelse:```
```items = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz', 'qux']

for item in items:
if item == 'baz':
print('found it')
break
else:
print('never found it')```
224
Insert element x at the beginning of list items.
`items = append([]T{x}, items...)`
Alternative implementation:
```items = append(items, x)
copy(items[1:], items)
items[0] = x```
`items = [x] + items`
225
Declare an optional integer argument x to procedure f, printing out "Present" and its value if it is present, "Not present" otherwise
```func f(x ...int) {
if len(x) > 0 {
println("Present", x[0])
} else {
println("Not present")
}
}```
```def f(x=None):
if x is None:
print("Not present")
else:
print("Present", x)```
226
Remove the last element from list items.
`items = items[:len(items)-1]`
`items.pop()`
227
Create new list y containing the same elements as list x.

Subsequent modifications of y must not affect x (except for the contents referenced by the elements themselves if they contain pointers).
```y := make([]T, len(x))
copy(y, x)```
`y = x[:]`
228
Copy the file at path src to dst.
```func copy(dst, src string) error {