Programming-Idioms.org

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Go Rust
1
Print a literal string on standard output
fmt.Println("Hello World")
println!("Hello World");
2
Loop to execute some code a constant number of times
for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
	fmt.Println("Hello")
}
for _ in 0..10 { println!("Hello"); }
Alternative implementation:
print!("{}", "Hello\n".repeat(10));
3
Like a function which doesn't return any value, thus has only side effects (e.g. Print to standard output)
func finish(name string) {
  fmt.Println("My job here is done. Good bye " + name)
}
fn finish(name : &str) {
    println!("My job here is done. Goodbye {}", name);
}
4
func square(x int) int {
  return x*x
}
fn function(x : u32) -> u32 { x * x }
5
Declare a container type for two floating-point numbers x and y
type Point struct {
    x, y float64
}
struct Point { x: f64, y: f64, }
Alternative implementation:
struct Point(f64, f64);
6
Do something with each item x of an array-like collection items, regardless indexes.
for _, x := range items {
    doSomething(x)
}
for x in items {
	do_something(x);
}
7
Print each index i with its value x from an array-like collection items
for i, x := range items {
    fmt.Printf("Item %d = %v \n", i, x)
}
for (i, x) in items.iter().enumerate() {
    println!("Item {} = {}", i, x);
}
8
Create a new map object x, and provide some (key, value) pairs as initial content.
x := map[string]int {"one": 1, "two": 2}
let mut x = BTreeMap::new();
x.insert("one", 1);
x.insert("two", 2);
Alternative implementation:
let x: HashMap<&str, i32> = [
    ("one", 1),
    ("two", 2),
].iter().cloned().collect();
9
The structure must be recursive because left child and right child are binary trees too. A node has access to children nodes, but not to its parent.
type BinTree struct {
	Value valueType
	Left *BinTree
	Right *BinTree
}
struct BinTree<T> {
    value: T,
    left: Option<Box<BinTree<T>>>,
    right: Option<Box<BinTree<T>>>,
}
10
Generate a random permutation of the elements of list x
for i := range x {
	j := rand.Intn(i + 1)
	x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}
Alternative implementation:
y := make([]T, len(x))
perm := rand.Perm(len(x))
for i, v := range perm {
	y[v] = x[i]
}
Alternative implementation:
rand.Shuffle(len(x), func(i, j int) {
	x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
})
Alternative implementation:
for i := len(x) - 1; i > 0; i-- {
	j := rand.Intn(i + 1)
	x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}
let mut rng = StdRng::new().unwrap();
rng.shuffle(&mut x);
Alternative implementation:
let mut rng = thread_rng();
x.shuffle(&mut rng);
11
List x must be non-empty.
x[rand.Intn(len(x))]
Alternative implementation:
func pickT(x []T) T {
	return x[rand.Intn(len(x))]
}
x[rand::thread_rng().gen_range(0, x.len())]
Alternative implementation:
let mut rng = rand::thread_rng();
let choice = x.choose(&mut rng).unwrap();
12
Check if list contains a value x.
list is an iterable finite container.
func Contains(list []T, x T) bool {
	for _, item := range list {
		if item == x {
			return true
		}
	}
	return false
}
list.contains(&x);
Alternative implementation:
list.iter().any(|v| v == &x)
Alternative implementation:
(&list).into_iter().any(|v| v == &x)
13
Access each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, and print them.
for k, x := range mymap {
  fmt.Println("Key =", k, ", Value =", x)
}
for (key, val) in &mymap {
    println!("Key={key}, Value={val}", key=key, val=val);
}
14
Pick a random number greater than or equals to a, strictly inferior to b. Precondition : a < b.
func pick(a, b  float64)  float64 {
	return a + (rand.Float64() * (b-a))
}
thread_rng().gen_range(a, b);
15
Pick a random integer greater than or equals to a, inferior or equals to b. Precondition : a < b.
func pick(a,b int) int {
	return a + rand.Intn(b-a+1)
}
fn pick(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    let between = Range::new(a, b);
    let mut rng = rand::thread_rng();
    between.ind_sample(&mut rng)
}
Alternative implementation:
Uniform::new_inclusive(a, b).sample(&mut rand::thread_rng())
16
Call a function f on every node of binary tree bt, in depth-first infix order
func (bt *BinTree) Dfs(f func(*BinTree)) {
	if bt == nil {
		return
	}
	bt.Left.Dfs(f)
	f(bt)
	bt.Right.Dfs(f)
}
17
The structure must be recursive. A node may have zero or more children. A node has access to children nodes, but not to its parent.
type Tree struct {
	Key keyType
	Deco valueType
	Children []*Tree
}
struct Node<T> {
  value: T,
  children: Vec<Node<T>>,
}
18
Call a function f on every node of a tree, in depth-first prefix order
func (t *Tree) Dfs(f func(*Tree)) {
	if t == nil {
		return
	}
	f(t)
	for _, child := range t.Children {
		child.Dfs(f)
	}
}
pub struct Tree<V> {
    children: Vec<Tree<V>>,
    value: V
}

impl<V> Tree<V> {
    pub fn dfs<F: Fn(&V)>(&self, f: F) {
        self.dfs_helper(&f);
    }
    fn dfs_helper<F: Fn(&V)>(&self, f: &F) {
        (f)(&self.value);
        for child in &self.children {
            child.dfs_helper(f)
        }
    }
    // ...
}
19
Reverse the order of the elements of list x.
This may reverse "in-place" and destroy the original ordering.
for i, j := 0, len(x)-1; i < j; i, j = i+1, j-1 {
	x[i], x[j] = x[j], x[i]
}
let y: Vec<_> = x.into_iter().rev().collect();
Alternative implementation:
x.reverse();
20
Implement a function search which looks for item x in a 2D matrix m.
Return indices i, j of the matching cell.
Think of the most idiomatic way in the language to return the two values at the same time.
func search(m [][]int, x int) (bool, int, int) {
	for i := range m {
		for j, v := range m[i] {
			if v == x {
				return true, i, j
			}
		}
	}
	return false, 0, 0
}
fn search<T: Eq>(m: &Vec<Vec<T>>, x: &T) -> Option<(usize, usize)> {
    for (i, row) in m.iter().enumerate() {
        for (j, column) in row.iter().enumerate() {
            if *column == *x {
                return Some((i, j));
            }
        }
    }

    None
}
21
Swap values of variables a and b
a, b = b, a
std::mem::swap(&mut a, &mut b);
Alternative implementation:
let (a, b) = (b, a);
22
Extract integer value i from its string representation s (in radix 10)
i, err  := strconv.Atoi(s) 
Alternative implementation:
i, err := strconv.ParseInt(s, 10, 0)
let i = s.parse::<i32>().unwrap();
Alternative implementation:
let i: i32 = s.parse().unwrap_or(0);
Alternative implementation:
let i = match s.parse::<i32>() {
  Ok(i) => i,
  Err(_e) => -1,
};
23
Given real number x, create its string representation s with 2 decimal digits following the dot.
s := fmt.Sprintf("%.2f", x)
let s = format!("{:.2}", x);
24
Declare a new string s and initialize it with the literal value "ネコ" (which means "cat" in japanese)
s := "ネコ"
let s = "ネコ";
25
Share the string value "Alan" with an existing running process which will then display "Hello, Alan"
ch <- "Alan"
let (send, recv) = channel();

thread::spawn(move || {
    loop {
        let msg = recv.recv().unwrap();
        println!("Hello, {:?}", msg);
    }  
});

send.send("Alan").unwrap();
26
Declare and initialize a matrix x having m rows and n columns, containing real numbers.
const m, n = 3, 4
var x [m][n]float64
Alternative implementation:
func make2D(m, n int) [][]float64 {
	buf := make([]float64, m*n)

	x := make([][]float64, m)
	for i := range x {
		x[i] = buf[:n:n]
		buf = buf[n:]
	}
	return x
}
let mut x = vec![vec![0.0f64; N]; M];
Alternative implementation:
let mut x = [[0.0; N] ; M];
27
Declare and initialize a 3D array x, having dimensions boundaries m, n, p, and containing real numbers.
const m, n, p = 2, 2, 3
var x [m][n][p]float64
Alternative implementation:
func make3D(m, n, p int) [][][]float64 {
	buf := make([]float64, m*n*p)

	x := make([][][]float64, m)
	for i := range x {
		x[i] = make([][]float64, n)
		for j := range x[i] {
			x[i][j] = buf[:p:p]
			buf = buf[p:]
		}
	}
	return x
}
let x = vec![vec![vec![0.0f64; P]; N]; M];
28
Sort elements of array-like collection items in ascending order of x.p, where p is a field of the type Item of the objects in items.
type ItemPSorter []Item
func (s ItemPSorter) Len() int{ return len(s) }
func (s ItemPSorter) Less(i,j int) bool{ return s[i].p<s[j].p }
func (s ItemPSorter) Swap(i,j int) { s[i],s[j] = s[j],s[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item){
	sorter := ItemPSorter(items)
	sort.Sort(sorter)
}
Alternative implementation:
less := func(i, j int) bool {
	return items[i].p < items[j].p
}
sort.Slice(items, less)
items.sort_by(|a,b|a.p.cmp(&b.p));
Alternative implementation:
items.sort_by_key(|item| item.p);
29
Remove i-th item from list items.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
Note that in most languages, the smallest valid value for i is 0.
items = append(items[:i], items[i+1:]...)
Alternative implementation:
copy(items[i:], items[i+1:])
items[len(items)-1] = nil
items = items[:len(items)-1]
items.remove(i)
30
Launch the concurrent execution of procedure f with parameter i from 1 to 1000.
Tasks are independent and f(i) doesn't return any value.
Tasks need not run all at the same time, so you may use a pool.
wg := sync.WaitGroup{}
wg.Add(1000)
for i := 1; i <= 1000; i++ {
	go func(j int) {
          f(j)
          wg.Done()
        }(i)
}
wg.Wait()
let threads: Vec<_> = (0..1000).map(|i| {
	thread::spawn(move || f(i))
}).collect();

for thread in threads {
	thread.join();
}
Alternative implementation:
(0..1000).into_par_iter().for_each(f);
31
Create recursive function f which returns the factorial of non-negative integer i, calculated from f(i-1)
func f(i int) int {
  if i == 0 {
    return 1
  }
  return i * f(i-1)
}
fn f(n: u32) -> u32 {
    if n < 2 {
        1
    } else {
        n * f(n - 1)
    }
}
Alternative implementation:
fn factorial(num: u64) -> u64 {
    match num {
        0 | 1 => 1,
        _ => factorial(num - 1) * num,
    }
}
32
Create function exp which calculates (fast) the value x power n.
x and n are non-negative integers.
func exp(x, n int) int {
	switch {
	case n == 0:
		return 1
	case n == 1:
		return x
	case n%2 == 0:
		return exp(x*x, n/2)
	default:
		return x * exp(x*x, (n-1)/2)
	}
}
fn exp(x: u64, n: u64) -> u64 {
    match n {
        0 => 1,
        1 => x,
        i if i % 2 == 0 => exp(x * x, n / 2),
        _ => x * exp(x * x, (n - 1) / 2),
    }     
}
33
Assign variable x the new value f(x), making sure that no other thread may modify x between the read and the write.
var lock sync.RWMutex

lock.Lock()
x = f(x)
lock.Unlock()
let mut x = x.lock().unwrap();
*x = f(x);
34
Declare and initialize a set x containing objects of type T.
x := make(map[T]bool)
Alternative implementation:
x := make(map[T]struct{})
let x: HashSet<T> = HashSet::new();
35
Implement a function compose (A -> C) with parameters f (A -> B) and g (B -> C), which returns composition function g ∘ f
func compose(f func(A) B, g func(B) C) func(A) C {
	return func(x A) C {
		return g(f(x))
	}
}
fn compose<'a, A, B, C, G, F>(f: F, g: G) -> Box<Fn(A) -> C + 'a>
	where F: 'a + Fn(A) -> B, G: 'a + Fn(B) -> C
{
	Box::new(move |x| g(f(x)))
}
Alternative implementation:
fn compose<A, B, C>(f: impl Fn(A) -> B, g: impl Fn(B) -> C) -> impl Fn(A) -> C {
    move |x| g(f(x))
}
36
Implement a function compose which returns composition function g ∘ f for any functions f and g having exactly 1 parameter.
func composeIntFuncs(f func(int) int, g func(int) int) func(int) int {
	return func(x int) int {
		return g(f(x))
	}
}
fn compose<'a, A, B, C, G, F>(f: F, g: G) -> Box<Fn(A) -> C + 'a>
	where F: 'a + Fn(A) -> B, G: 'a + Fn(B) -> C
{
	Box::new(move |x| g(f(x)))
}
Alternative implementation:
fn compose<A, B, C>(f: impl Fn(A) -> B, g: impl Fn(B) -> C) -> impl Fn(A) -> C {
    move |x| g(f(x))
}
37
Transform a function that takes multiple arguments into a function for which some of the arguments are preset.
type PayFactory func(Company, *Employee, *Employee) Payroll

type CustomPayFactory func(*Employee) Payroll

func CurryPayFactory(pf PayFactory,company Company, boss *Employee) CustomPayFactory {
	return func(e *Employee) Payroll {
		return pf(company, boss, e)
	}
}
fn add(a: u32, b: u32) -> u32 {
    a + b
}

let add5 = move |x| add(5, x);
 
38
Find substring t consisting in characters i (included) to j (excluded) of string s.
Character indices start at 0 unless specified otherwise.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
t := string([]rune(s)[i:j])
let t = s.graphemes(true).skip(i).take(j - i).collect::<String>();
Alternative implementation:
let t = s.substring(i, j);
39
Set boolean ok to true if string word is contained in string s as a substring, or to false otherwise.
ok := strings.Contains(s, word)
let ok = s.contains(word);
40
Declare a Graph data structure in which each Vertex has a collection of its neighbouring vertices.
type Vertex struct{
	Id int
	Label string
	Neighbours map[*Vertex]bool
}

type Graph []*Vertex
41
Create string t containing the same characters as string s, in reverse order.
Original string s must remain unaltered. Each character must be handled correctly regardless its number of bytes in memory.
runes := []rune(s)
for i, j := 0, len(runes)-1; i < j; i, j = i+1, j-1 {
   runes[i], runes[j] = runes[j], runes[i]
}
t := string(runes)
let t = s.chars().rev().collect::<String>();
Alternative implementation:
let t: String = s.chars().rev().collect();
42
Print each item v of list a which in not contained in list b.
For this, write an outer loop to iterate on a and an inner loop to iterate on b.
mainloop:
	for _, v := range a {
		for _, w := range b {
			if v == w {
				continue mainloop
			}
		}
		fmt.Println(v)
	}
'outer: for va in &a {
    for vb in &b {
        if va == vb {
            continue 'outer;
        }
    }
    println!("{}", va);
}
43
Look for a negative value v in 2D integer matrix m. Print it and stop searching.
mainloop:
	for i, line := range m {
		for _, v := range line {
			if v < 0 {
				fmt.Println(v)
				break mainloop
			}
		}
	}
'outer: for v in m {
    'inner: for i in v {
        if i < 0 {
            println!("Found {}", i);
            break 'outer;
        }
    }
}
44
Insert element x at position i in list s. Further elements must be shifted to the right.
s = append(s, 0)
copy(s[i+1:], s[i:])
s[i] = x
s.insert(i, x);
45
Sleep for 5 seconds in current thread, before proceeding with next instructions.
time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
thread::sleep(time::Duration::from_secs(5));
46
Create string t consisting of the 5 first characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
t := string([]rune(s)[:5])
let t = s.char_indices().nth(5).map_or(s, |(i, _)| &s[..i]);
47
Create string t consisting in the 5 last characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
t := string([]rune(s)[len([]rune(s))-5:])
let last5ch = s.chars().count() - 5;
let t: String = s.chars().skip(last5ch).collect();
48
Assign to variable s a string literal consisting in several lines of text, including newlines.
s := `Huey
Dewey
Louie`
let s = "line 1
line 2
line 3";
Alternative implementation:
let s = r#"Huey
Dewey
Louie"#;
49
Build list chunks consisting in substrings of input string s, separated by one or more space characters.
chunks := strings.Split(s, " ")
Alternative implementation:
chunks := strings.Fields(s)
let chunks:Vec<_> = s.split_whitespace().collect();
50
Write a loop which has no end clause.
for {
	// Do something
}
loop {
	// Do something
}
51
Determine whether map m contains an entry for key k
_, ok := m[k]
m.contains_key(&k)
52
Determine whether map m contains an entry with value v, for some key.
func containsValue(m map[K]T, v T) bool {
	for _, x := range m {
		if x == v {
			return true
		}
	}
	return false
}
let does_contain = m.values().any(|&val| *val == v);
53
Concatenate elements of string list x joined by the separator ", " to create a single string y.
y := strings.Join(x, ", ")
let y = x.join(", ");
54
Calculate the sum s of integer list x.
s := 0
for _, v := range x {
	s += v
}
x.iter().sum()
Alternative implementation:
let s = x.iter().sum::<i32>();
55
Create the string representation s (in radix 10) of integer value i.
s := strconv.Itoa(i)
Alternative implementation:
s := strconv.FormatInt(i, 10)
Alternative implementation:
s := fmt.Sprintf("%d", i)
let s = i.to_string();
Alternative implementation:
let s = format!("{}",i);
56
Fork-join : launch the concurrent execution of procedure f with parameter i from 1 to 1000.
Tasks are independent and f(i) doesn't return any value.
Tasks need not run all at the same time, so you may use a pool.
Wait for the completion of the 1000 tasks and then print "Finished".
var wg sync.WaitGroup
wg.Add(1000)
for i := 1; i <= 1000; i++ {
	go func(i int) {
		f(i)
		wg.Done()
	}(i)
}
wg.Wait()
fmt.Println("Finished")
let threads: Vec<_> = (0..1000).map(|i| thread::spawn(move || f(i))).collect();

for t in threads {
	t.join();
}
57
Create list y containing items from list x satisfying predicate p. Respect original ordering. Don't modify x in-place.
y := make([]T, 0, len(x))
for _, v := range x{
	if p(v){
		y = append(y, v)
	}
}
let y: Vec<_> = x.iter().filter(p).collect();
58
Create string lines from the content of the file with filename f.
b, err := ioutil.ReadFile(f)
if err != nil {
	// Handle error...
}
lines := string(b)
let mut file = File::open(f)?;
let mut lines = String::new();
file.read_to_string(&mut lines)?;
Alternative implementation:
let lines = fs::read_to_string(f).expect("Can't read file.");
59
Print the message "x is negative" to standard error (stderr), with integer x value substitution (e.g. "-2 is negative").
fmt.Fprintln(os.Stderr, x, "is negative")
eprintln!("{} is negative", x);
60
Assign to x the string value of the first command line parameter, after the program name.
x := os.Args[1]
let first_arg = env::args().skip(1).next();

let fallback = "".to_owned();
let x = first_arg.unwrap_or(fallback);
61
Assign to variable d the current date/time value, in the most standard type.
var d time.Time = time.Now()
let d = time::now();
Alternative implementation:
let d = SystemTime::now();
62
Set i to the position of string y inside string x, if exists.
i := strings.Index(x, y)
let i = x.find(y).unwrap();
63
Assign to x2 the value of string x with all occurrences of y replaced by z.
Assume occurrences of y are not overlapping.
x2 := strings.Replace(x, y, z, -1)
let x2 = x.replace(&y, &z);
64
Assign to x the value 3^247
x := new(big.Int)
x.Exp(big.NewInt(3), big.NewInt(247), nil)
let a = 3.to_bigint().unwrap();
let x = num::pow(a, 247);
65
From real value x in [0,1], create its percentage string representation s with one digit after decimal point. E.g. 0.15625 -> "15.6%"
s := fmt.Sprintf("%.1f%%", 100.0*x)
let s = format!("{:.1}%", 100.0 * x);
66
Calculate the result z of x power n, where x is a big integer and n is a positive integer.
nb := big.NewInt(int64(n))
var z big.Int
z.Exp(x, nb, nil)
let z = num::pow(x, n);
67
Calculate binom(n, k) = n! / (k! * (n-k)!). Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
z := new(big.Int)
z.Binomial(n, k)
fn binom(n: u64, k: u64) -> BigInt {
    let mut res = BigInt::one();
    for i in 0..k {
        res = (res * (n - i).to_bigint().unwrap()) /
              (i + 1).to_bigint().unwrap();
    }
    res
}
68
Create an object x to store n bits (n being potentially large).
var x *big.Int = new(big.Int)
Alternative implementation:
x := make([]bool, n)
Alternative implementation:
x := make([]uint64, (n+63)/64)
let mut x = vec![false; n];
69
Use seed s to initialize a random generator.

If s is constant, the generator output will be the same each time the program runs. If s is based on the current value of the system clock, the generator output will be different each time.
rand.Seed(s)
Alternative implementation:
r := rand.New(rand.NewSource(s))
let s = 32;
let mut rng = StdRng::seed_from_u64(s);
70
Get the current datetime and provide it as a seed to a random generator. The generator sequence will be different at each run.
rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
Alternative implementation:
r := rand.New(rand.NewSource(time.Now().UnixNano()))
let d = SystemTime::now()
    .duration_since(SystemTime::UNIX_EPOCH)
    .expect("Duration since UNIX_EPOCH failed");
let mut rng = StdRng::seed_from_u64(d.as_secs());
71
Basic implementation of the Echo program: Print all arguments except the program name, separated by space, followed by newline.
The idiom demonstrates how to skip the first argument if necessary, concatenate arguments as strings, append newline and print it to stdout.
func main() {
    fmt.Println(strings.Join(os.Args[1:], " "))
}
println!("{}", env::args().skip(1).collect::<Vec<_>>().join(" "));
Alternative implementation:
println!("{}", std::env::args().skip(1).format(" "));
73
Create a factory named fact for any sub class of Parent and taking exactly one string str as constructor parameter.
type ParentFactory func(string) Parent

var fact ParentFactory = func(str string) Parent {
	return Parent{
		name: str,
	}
}
74
Compute the greatest common divisor x of big integers a and b. Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
x.GCD(nil, nil, a, b)
let x = a.gcd(&b);
75
Compute the least common multiple x of big integers a and b. Use an integer type able to handle huge numbers.
gcd.GCD(nil, nil, a, b)
x.Div(a, gcd).Mul(x, b)
let x = a.lcm(&b);
76
Create the string s of integer x written in base 2.

E.g. 13 -> "1101"
s := strconv.FormatInt(x, 2)
Alternative implementation:
s := fmt.Sprintf("%b", x)
let s = format!("{:b}", x);
77
Declare a complex x and initialize it with value (3i - 2). Then multiply it by i.
x := 3i - 2
x *= 1i
let mut x = Complex::new(-2, 3);
x *= Complex::i();
78
Execute a block once, then execute it again as long as boolean condition c is true.
for{
   someThing()
   someOtherThing()
   if !c {
     break
   }
}
Alternative implementation:
for done := false; !done; {
	someThing()
	someOtherThing()
	done = !c()
}
loop {
    doStuff();
    if !c { break; }
}
79
Declare floating point number y and initialize it with the value of integer x .
y := float64(x)
let y = x as f32;
80
Declare integer y and initialize it with the value of floating point number x . Ignore non-integer digits of x .
Make sure to truncate towards zero: a negative x must yield the closest greater integer (not lesser).
y := int(x)
let y = x as i32;
81
Declare integer y and initialize it with the rounded value of floating point number x .
Ties (when the fractional part of x is exactly .5) must be rounded up (to positive infinity).
y := int(math.Floor(x + 0.5))
let y = x.round() as i64;
82
Find how many times string s contains substring t.
Specify if overlapping occurrences are counted.
x := strings.Count(s, t)
let c = s.matches(t).count();
83
Declare regular expression r matching strings "http", "htttp", "httttp", etc.
r := regexp.MustCompile("htt+p")
let r = Regex::new(r"htt+p").unwrap();
84
Count number c of 1s in the integer i in base 2.

E.g. i=6 → c=2
func PopCountUInt64(i uint64) (c int) {
	i -= (i >> 1) & 0x5555555555555555
	i = (i>>2)&0x3333333333333333 + i&0x3333333333333333
	i += i >> 4
	i &= 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f
	i *= 0x0101010101010101
	return int(i >> 56)
}

func PopCountUInt32(i uint32) (n int) {
	i -= (i >> 1) & 0x55555555
	i = (i>>2)&0x33333333 + i&0x33333333
	i += i >> 4
	i &= 0x0f0f0f0f
	i *= 0x01010101
	return int(i >> 24)
}
Alternative implementation:
c := bits.OnesCount(i)
let c = i.count_ones();
85
Write boolean function addingWillOverflow which takes two integers x, y and return true if (x+y) overflows.

An overflow may be above the max positive value, or below the min negative value.
func willAddOverflow(a, b int64) bool {
	return a > math.MaxInt64 - b
}
fn adding_will_overflow(x: usize, y: usize) -> bool {
    x.checked_add(y).is_none()
}
86
Write boolean function multiplyWillOverflow which takes two integers x, y and return true if (x*y) overflows.

An overflow may be above the max positive value, or below the min negative value.
func multiplyWillOverflow(x, y uint64) bool {
   if x <= 1 || y <= 1 {
     return false
   }
   d := x * y
   return d/y != x
}
fn multiply_will_overflow(x: i64, y: i64) -> bool {
    x.checked_mul(y).is_none()
}
87
Exit immediatly.
If some extra cleanup work is executed by the program runtime (not by the OS itself), describe it.
os.Exit(0)
std::process::exit(0);
88
Create a new bytes buffer buf of size 1,000,000.
buf := make([]byte, 1000000)
let buf: Vec<u8> = Vec::with_capacity(1000000);
89
You've detected that the integer value of argument x passed to the current function is invalid. Write the idiomatic way to abort the function execution and signal the problem.
return nil, fmt.Errorf("invalid value for x: %v", x)
enum CustomError { InvalidAnswer }

fn do_stuff(x: i32) -> Result<i32, CustomError> {
    if x != 42 {
        Err(CustomError::InvalidAnswer)
    } else {
        Ok(x)
    }
}
90
Expose a read-only integer x to the outside world while being writable inside a structure or a class Foo.
type Foo struct {
	x int
}

func (f *Foo) X() int {
	return f.x
}
struct Foo {
    x: usize
}

impl Foo {
    pub fn new(x: usize) -> Self {
        Foo { x }
    }

    pub fn x<'a>(&'a self) -> &'a usize {
        &self.x
    }

    pub fn bar(&mut self) {
        self.x += 1;
    }
}
91
Read from file data.json and write its content into object x.
Assume the JSON data is suitable for the type of x.
buffer, err := ioutil.ReadFile("data.json")
if err != nil {
	return err
}
err = json.Unmarshal(buffer, &x)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
Alternative implementation:
r, err := os.Open(filename)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
decoder := json.NewDecoder(r)
err = decoder.Decode(&x)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
let x = ::serde_json::from_reader(File::open("data.json")?)?;
92
Write content of object x into file data.json.
buffer, err := json.MarshalIndent(x, "", "  ")
if err != nil {
	return err
}
err = ioutil.WriteFile("data.json", buffer, 0644)
::serde_json::to_writer(&File::create("data.json")?, &x)?
93
Implement procedure control which receives one parameter f, and runs f.
func control(f func()) {
	f()
}
fn control(f: impl Fn()) {
    f();
}
94
Print the name of the type of x. Explain if it is a static type or dynamic type.

This may not make sense in all languages.
fmt.Println(reflect.TypeOf(x))
Alternative implementation:
fmt.Printf("%T", x)
fn type_of<T>(_: &T) -> &'static str {
    std::intrinsics::type_name::<T>()
}

println!("{}", type_of(&x));
95
Assign to variable x the length (number of bytes) of the local file at path.
info, err := os.Stat(path)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
x := info.Size()
let x = fs::metadata(path)?.len();
Alternative implementation:
let x = path.metadata()?.len();
96
Set boolean b to true if string s starts with prefix prefix, false otherwise.
b := strings.HasPrefix(s, prefix)
let b = s.starts_with(prefix);
97
Set boolean b to true if string s ends with string suffix, false otherwise.
b := strings.HasSuffix(s, suffix)
let b = s.ends_with(suffix);
98
Convert a timestamp ts (number of seconds in epoch-time) to a date with time d. E.g. 0 -> 1970-01-01 00:00:00
d := time.Unix(ts, 0)
let d = NaiveDateTime::from_timestamp(ts, 0);
99
Assign to string x the value of fields (year, month, day) of date d, in format YYYY-MM-DD.
x := d.Format("2006-01-02")
Utc::today().format("%Y-%m-%d")
100
Sort elements of array-like collection items, using a comparator c.
type ItemCSorter []Item
func (s ItemCSorter) Len() int           { return len(s) }
func (s ItemCSorter) Less(i, j int) bool { return c(s[i], s[j]) }
func (s ItemCSorter) Swap(i, j int)      { s[i], s[j] = s[j], s[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item) {
	sorter := ItemCSorter(items)
	sort.Sort(sorter)
}
Alternative implementation:
type ItemsSorter struct {
	items []Item
	c     func(x, y Item) bool
}

func (s ItemsSorter) Len() int           { return len(s.items) }
func (s ItemsSorter) Less(i, j int) bool { return s.c(s.items[i], s.items[j]) }
func (s ItemsSorter) Swap(i, j int)      { s.items[i], s.items[j] = s.items[j], s.items[i] }

func sortItems(items []Item, c func(x, y Item) bool) {
	sorter := ItemsSorter{
		items,
		c,
	}
	sort.Sort(sorter)
}
Alternative implementation:
sort.Slice(items, func(i, j int) bool {
	return c(items[i], items[j])
})
fn main()
{
    let c = |a: &u32,b: &u32|a.cmp(b);

    let mut v = vec![1,7,5,2,3];
    v.sort_by(c);
    println!("{:#?}",v);
}
Alternative implementation:
items.sort_by(c);
101
Make an HTTP request with method GET to URL u, then store the body of the response in string s.
res, err := http.Get(u)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
buffer, err := ioutil.ReadAll(res.Body)
res.Body.Close()
if err != nil {
	return err
}
s := string(buffer)
let client = Client::new();
let s = client.get(u).send().and_then(|res| res.text())?;
Alternative implementation:
let s = ureq::get(u).call().into_string()?;
102
Make an HTTP request with method GET to URL u, then store the body of the response in file result.txt. Try to save the data as it arrives if possible, without having all its content in memory at once.
resp, err := http.Get(u)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
defer resp.Body.Close()
if resp.StatusCode != 200 {
	return fmt.Errorf("Status: %v", resp.Status)
}
out, err := os.Create("result.txt")
if err != nil {
	return err
}
defer out.Close()
_, err = io.Copy(out, resp.Body)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
let client = Client::new();
match client.get(&u).send() {
    Ok(res) => {
        let file = File::create("result.txt")?;
        ::std::io::copy(res, file)?;
    },
    Err(e) => eprintln!("failed to send request: {}", e),
};
103
Read from file data.xml and write its content into object x.
Assume the XML data is suitable for the type of x.
buffer, err := ioutil.ReadFile("data.xml")
if err != nil {
	return err
}
err = xml.Unmarshal(buffer, &x)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
104
Write content of object x into file data.xml.
buffer, err := xml.MarshalIndent(x, "", "  ")
if err != nil {
	return err
}
err = ioutil.WriteFile("data.xml", buffer, 0644)
105
Assign to string s the name of the currently executing program (but not its full path).
path := os.Args[0]
s = filepath.Base(path)
fn get_exec_name() -> Option<String> {
    std::env::current_exe()
        .ok()
        .and_then(|pb| pb.file_name().map(|s| s.to_os_string()))
        .and_then(|s| s.into_string().ok())
}

fn main() -> () {
    let s = get_exec_name().unwrap();
    println!("{}", s);
}
Alternative implementation:
let s = std::env::current_exe()
    .expect("Can't get the exec path")
    .file_name()
    .expect("Can't get the exec name")
    .to_string_lossy()
    .into_owned();
106
Assign to string dir the path of the working directory.
(This is not necessarily the folder containing the executable itself)
dir, err := os.Getwd()
let dir = env::current_dir().unwrap();
107
Assign to string dir the path of the folder containing the currently running executable.
(This is not necessarily the working directory, though.)
programPath := os.Args[0]
absolutePath, err := filepath.Abs(programPath)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
dir := filepath.Dir(absolutePath)
let dir = std::env::current_exe()?
    .canonicalize()
    .expect("the current exe should exist")
    .parent()
    .expect("the current exe should be a file")
    .to_string_lossy()
    .to_owned();
109
Set n to the number of bytes of a variable t (of type T).
var t T
tType := reflect.TypeOf(t)
n := tType.Size()
let n = ::std::mem::size_of::<T>();
110
Set boolean blank to true if string s is empty, or null, or contains only whitespace ; false otherwise.
blank := strings.TrimSpace(s) == ""
let blank = s.trim().is_empty();
111
From current process, run program x with command-line parameters "a", "b".
err := exec.Command("x", "a", "b").Run()
let output = Command::new("x")
    .args(&["a", "b"])
    .spawn()
    .expect("failed to execute process");
112
Print each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, in ascending order of k.
keys := make([]string, 0, len(mymap))
for k := range mymap {
	keys = append(keys, k)
}
sort.Strings(keys)

for _, k := range keys {
	x := mymap[k]
	fmt.Println("Key =", k, ", Value =", x)
}
for (k, x) in mymap {
    println!("({}, {})", k, x);
}
113
Print each key k with its value x from an associative array mymap, in ascending order of x.
Note that multiple entries may exist for the same value x.
type entry struct {
	key   string
	value int
}

type entries []entry
func (list entries) Len() int { return len(list) }
func (list entries) Less(i, j int) bool { return list[i].value < list[j].value }
func (list entries) Swap(i, j int) { list[i], list[j] = list[j], list[i] }

entries := make(entries, 0, len(mymap))
for k, x := range mymap {
	entries = append(entries, entry{key: k, values: x})
}
sort.Sort(entries)

for _, e := range entries {
	fmt.Println("Key =", e.key, ", Value =", e.value)
}
Alternative implementation:
type entry struct {
	key   string
	value int
}

entries := make([]entry, 0, len(mymap))
for k, x := range mymap {
	entries = append(entries, entry{key: k, value: x})
}
sort.Slice(entries, func(i, j int) bool {
	return entries[i].value < entries[j].value
})

for _, e := range entries {
	fmt.Println("Key =", e.key, ", Value =", e.value)
}
for (k, x) in mymap.iter().sorted_by_key(|x| x.1) {
	println!("[{},{}]", k, x);
}
Alternative implementation:
let mut items: Vec<_> = mymap.iter().collect();
items.sort_by_key(|item| item.1);
for (k, x) in items {
    println!("[{},{}]", k, x);
}
114
Set boolean b to true if objects x and y contain the same values, recursively comparing all referenced elements in x and y.
Tell if the code correctly handles recursive types.
b := reflect.DeepEqual(x, y)
let b = x == y;
115
Set boolean b to true if date d1 is strictly before date d2 ; false otherwise.
b := d1.Before(d2)
let b = d1 < d2;
116
Remove all occurrences of string w from string s1, and store the result in s2.
s2 := strings.Replace(s1, w, "", -1)
s2 = s1.replace(w, "");
Alternative implementation:
let s2 = str::replace(s1, w, "");
117
Set n to the number of elements of list x.
n := len(x)
let n = x.len();

118
Create set y from list x.
x may contain duplicates. y is unordered and has no repeated values.
y := make(map[T]struct{}, len(x))
for _, v := range x {
	y[v] = struct{}{}
}
let y: HashSet<_> = x.into_iter().collect();
119
Remove duplicates from list x.
Explain if original order is preserved.
y := make(map[T]struct{}, len(x))
for _, v := range x {
	y[v] = struct{}{}
}
x2 := make([]T, 0, len(y))
for _, v := range x {
	if _, ok := y[v]; ok {
		x2 = append(x2, v)
		delete(y, v)
	}
}
x = x2
Alternative implementation:
seen := make(map[T]bool)
j := 0
for _, v := range x {
	if !seen[v] {
		x[j] = v
		j++
		seen[v] = true
	}
}
x = x[:j]
Alternative implementation:
seen := make(map[T]bool)
j := 0
for _, v := range x {
	if !seen[v] {
		x[j] = v
		j++
		seen[v] = true
	}
}
for i := j; i < len(x); i++ {
	x[i] = nil
}
x = x[:j]
x.sort();
x.dedup();
Alternative implementation:
let dedup: Vec<_> = x.iter().unique().collect();
120
Read an integer value from the standard input into variable n.
_, err := fmt.Scan(&n)
Alternative implementation:
_, err := fmt.Scanf("%d", &n)
fn get_input() -> String {
    let mut buffer = String::new();
    std::io::stdin().read_line(&mut buffer).expect("Failed");
    buffer
}

let n = get_input().trim().parse::<i64>().unwrap();
Alternative implementation:
let mut input = String::new();
io::stdin().read_line(&mut input).unwrap();
let n: i32 = input.trim().parse().unwrap();
Alternative implementation:
let n: i32 = std::io::stdin()
    .lock()
    .lines()
    .next()
    .expect("stdin should be available")
    .expect("couldn't read from stdin")
    .trim()
    .parse()
    .expect("input was not an integer");
121
Listen UDP traffic on port p and read 1024 bytes into buffer b.
ServerAddr,err := net.ResolveUDPAddr("udp",p)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
ServerConn, err := net.ListenUDP("udp", ServerAddr)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
defer ServerConn.Close()
n,addr,err := ServerConn.ReadFromUDP(b[:1024])
if err != nil {
	return err
}
if n<1024 {
	return fmt.Errorf("Only %d bytes could be read.", n)
}
let mut b = [0 as u8; 1024];
let sock = UdpSocket::bind(("localhost", p)).unwrap();
sock.recv_from(&mut b).unwrap();
122
Create an enumerated type Suit with 4 possible values SPADES, HEARTS, DIAMONDS, CLUBS.
type Suit int

const (
  Spades Suit = iota
  Hearts
  Diamonds
  Clubs
)
enum Suit {
    Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, Clubs
}
123
Verify that predicate isConsistent returns true, otherwise report assertion violation.
Explain if the assertion is executed even in production environment or not.
if !isConsistent() {
	panic("State consistency violated")
}
assert!(isConsistent);
124
Write function binarySearch which returns the index of an element having value x in sorted array a, or -1 if no such element.
func binarySearch(a []T, x T) int {
	imin, imax := 0, len(a)-1
	for imin <= imax {
		imid := (imin + imax) / 2
		switch {
		case a[imid] == x:
			return imid
		case a[imid] < x:
			imin = imid + 1
		default:
			imax = imid - 1
		}
	}
	return -1
}
Alternative implementation:
func binarySearch(a []int, x int) int {
	i := sort.SearchInts(a, x)
	if i < len(a) && a[i] == x {
		return i
	}
	return -1
}
Alternative implementation:
func binarySearch(a []T, x T) int {
	f := func(i int) bool { return a[i] >= x }
	i := sort.Search(len(a), f)
	if i < len(a) && a[i] == x {
		return i
	}
	return -1
}
a.binary_search(&x).unwrap_or(-1);
125
measure the duration t, in nano seconds, of a call to the function foo. Print this duration.
t1 := time.Now()
foo()
t := time.Since(t1)
ns := int64(t / time.Nanosecond)
fmt.Printf("%dns\n", ns)
Alternative implementation:
t1 := time.Now()
foo()
t := time.Since(t1)
ns := t.Nanoseconds()
fmt.Printf("%dns\n", ns)
let start = Instant::now();
foo();
let duration = start.elapsed();
println!("{}", duration);
126
Write a function foo that returns a string and a boolean value.
func foo() (string, bool) {
	return "Too good to be", true
}
fn foo() -> (String, bool) {
    (String::from("bar"), true)
}
127
Import the source code for the function foo body from a file "foobody.txt" . The declaration must not reside in the external file.
fn main() {
    include!("foobody.txt");
}
128
Call a function f on every node of a tree, in breadth-first prefix order
func (root *Tree) Bfs(f func(*Tree)) {
	if root == nil {
		return
	}
	queue := []*Tree{root}
	for len(queue) > 0 {
		t := queue[0]
		queue = queue[1:]
		f(t)
		queue = append(queue, t.Children...)
	}
}
struct Tree<V> {
    children: Vec<Tree<V>>,
    value: V
}

impl<V> Tree<V> {
    fn bfs(&self, f: impl Fn(&V)) {
        let mut q = VecDeque::new();
        q.push_back(self);

        while let Some(t) = q.pop_front() {
            (f)(&t.value);
            for child in &t.children {
                q.push_back(child);
            }
        }
    }
}
129
Call a function f on every vertex accessible from vertex start, in breadth-first prefix order
func (start *Vertex) Bfs(f func(*Vertex)) {
	queue := []*Vertex{start}
	seen := map[*Vertex]bool{start: true}
	for len(queue) > 0 {
		v := queue[0]
		queue = queue[1:]
		f(v)
		for next, isEdge := range v.Neighbours {
			if isEdge && !seen[next] {
				queue = append(queue, next)
				seen[next] = true
			}
		}
	}
}
struct Vertex<V> {
	value: V,
	neighbours: Vec<Weak<RefCell<Vertex<V>>>>,
}

// ...

fn bft(start: Rc<RefCell<Vertex<V>>>, f: impl Fn(&V)) {
	let mut q = vec![start];
	let mut i = 0;
	while i < q.len() {
	    let v = Rc::clone(&q[i]);
	    i += 1;
	    (f)(&v.borrow().value);
	    for n in &v.borrow().neighbours {
	        let n = n.upgrade().expect("Invalid neighbour");
	        if q.iter().all(|v| v.as_ptr() != n.as_ptr()) {
	            q.push(n);
	        }
	    }
	}
}
130
Call a function f on every vertex accessible for vertex v, in depth-first prefix order
func (v *Vertex) Dfs(f func(*Vertex), seen map[*Vertex]bool) {
	seen[v] = true
	f(v)
	for next, isEdge := range v.Neighbours {
		if isEdge && !seen[next] {
			next.Dfs(f, seen)
		}
	}
}
struct Vertex<V> {
	value: V,
	neighbours: Vec<Weak<RefCell<Vertex<V>>>>,
}

// ...

fn dft_helper(start: Rc<RefCell<Vertex<V>>>, f: &impl Fn(&V), s: &mut Vec<*const Vertex<V>>) {
	s.push(start.as_ptr());
	(f)(&start.borrow().value);
	for n in &start.borrow().neighbours {
		let n = n.upgrade().expect("Invalid neighbor");
		if s.iter().all(|&p| p != n.as_ptr()) {
			Self::dft_helper(n, f, s);
		}
	}
}
131
Execute f1 if condition c1 is true, or else f2 if condition c2 is true, or else f3 if condition c3 is true.
Don't evaluate a condition when a previous condition was true.
switch {
case c1:
	f1()
case c2:
	f2()
case c3:
	f3()
}
if c1 { f1() } else if c2 { f2() } else if c3 { f3() }
Alternative implementation:
match true {
    _ if c1 => f1(),
    _ if c2 => f2(),
    _ if c3 => f3(),
    _ => (),
}
132
Run procedure f, and return the duration of the execution of f.
func clock(f func()) time.Duration {
	t := time.Now()
	f()
	return time.Since(t)
}
let start = Instant::now();
f();
let duration = start.elapsed();
133
Set boolean ok to true if string word is contained in string s as a substring, even if the case doesn't match, or to false otherwise.
lowerS, lowerWord := strings.ToLower(s), strings.ToLower(word)
ok := strings.Contains(lowerS, lowerWord)
let mut re = String::with_capacity(4 + word.len());
re += "(?i)";
re += word;
let re = Regex::new(&re).unwrap();
ok = re.is_match(&s);
Alternative implementation:
let re =
    RegexBuilder::new(word)
    .case_insensitive(true)
    .build().unwrap();

ok = re.is_match(s);
Alternative implementation:
let ok = s.to_ascii_lowercase().contains(&word.to_ascii_lowercase());
134
Declare and initialize a new list items, containing 3 elements a, b, c.
items := []T{a, b, c}
let items = vec![a, b, c];
135
Remove at most 1 item from list items, having value x.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
If there are several occurrences of x in items, remove only one of them. If x is absent, keep items unchanged.
for i, y := range items {
	if y == x {
		items = append(items[:i], items[i+1:]...)
		break
	}
}
Alternative implementation:
for i, y := range items {
	if y == x {
		copy(items[i:], items[i+1:])
		items[len(items)-1] = nil
		items = items[:len(items)-1]
		break
	}
}
if let Some(i) = items.first(&x) {
    items.remove(i);
}
136
Remove all occurrences of value x from list items.
This will alter the original list or return a new list, depending on which is more idiomatic.
items2 := make([]T, 0, len(items))
for _, v := range items {
	if v != x {
		items2 = append(items2, v)
	}
}
Alternative implementation:
j := 0
for i, v := range items {
	if v != x {
		items[j] = items[i]
		j++
	}
}
items = items[:j]
Alternative implementation:
j := 0
for i, v := range items {
	if v != x {
		items[j] = items[i]
		j++
	}
}
for k := j; k < len(items); k++ {
	items[k] = nil
}
items = items[:j]
items = items.into_iter().filter(|&item| item != x).collect();
137
Set boolean b to true if string s contains only characters in range '0'..'9', false otherwise.
b := true
for _, c := range s {
	if c < '0' || c > '9' {
		b = false
		break
	}
}
Alternative implementation:
isNotDigit := func(c rune) bool { return c < '0' || c > '9' }
b := strings.IndexFunc(s, isNotDigit) == -1
let chars_are_numeric: Vec<bool> = s.chars()
				.map(|c|c.is_numeric())
				.collect();
let b = !chars_are_numeric.contains(&false);
Alternative implementation:
let b = s.chars().all(char::is_numeric);
138
Create a new temporary file on filesystem.
tmpfile, err := ioutil.TempFile("", "")
let temp_dir = TempDir::new("prefix")?;
let temp_file = File::open(temp_dir.path().join("file_name"))?;
139
Create a new temporary folder on filesystem, for writing.
dir, err := ioutil.TempDir("", "")
let tmp = TempDir::new("prefix")?;
140
Delete from map m the entry having key k.

Explain what happens if k is not an existing key in m.
delete(m, k)
m.remove(&k);
141
Iterate in sequence over the elements of the list items1 then items2. For each iteration print the element.
for _, v := range items1 {
	fmt.Println(v)
}
for _, v := range items2 {
	fmt.Println(v)
}
for i in item1.iter().chain(item2.iter()) {
    print!("{} ", i);
}
142
Assign to string s the hexadecimal representation (base 16) of integer x.

E.g. 999 -> "3e7"
s := strconv.FormatInt(x, 16)
Alternative implementation:
s := fmt.Sprintf("%x", x)
let s = format!("{:X}", x);
143
Iterate alternatively over the elements of the list items1 and items2. For each iteration, print the element.

Explain what happens if items1 and items2 have different size.
for i := 0; i < len(items1) || i < len(items2); i++ {
	if i < len(items1) {
		fmt.Println(items1[i])
	}
	if i < len(items2) {
		fmt.Println(items2[i])
	}
}
for pair in izip!(item1, item2) {
    println!("{:?}", pair);
}
144
Set boolean b to true if file at path fp exists on filesystem; false otherwise.

Beware that you should never do this and then in the next instruction assume the result is still valid, this is a race condition on any multitasking OS.
_, err := os.Stat(fp)
b := !os.IsNotExist(err)
let _b = std::path::Path::new(_fp).exists();
145
Print message msg, prepended by current date and time.

Explain what behavior is idiomatic: to stdout or stderr, and what the date format is.
log.Println(msg)
eprintln!("[{}] {}", humantime::format_rfc3339_seconds(std::time::SystemTime::now()), msg);
146
Extract floating point value f from its string representation s
f, err := strconv.ParseFloat(s, 64)
let f = s.parse::<f32>().unwrap();
Alternative implementation:
let f: f32 = s.parse().unwrap();
147
Create string t from string s, keeping only ASCII characters
re := regexp.MustCompile("[[:^ascii:]]")
t := re.ReplaceAllLiteralString(s, "")
Alternative implementation:
t := strings.Map(func(r rune) rune {
	if r > unicode.MaxASCII {
		return -1
	}
	return r
}, s)
let t = s.replace(|c: char| !c.is_ascii(), "");
Alternative implementation:
let t = s.chars().filter(|c| c.is_ascii()).collect::<String>();
148
Read a list of integer numbers from the standard input, until EOF.
var ints []int
s := bufio.NewScanner(os.Stdin)
s.Split(bufio.ScanWords)
for s.Scan() {
	i, err := strconv.Atoi(s.Text())
	if err == nil {
		ints = append(ints, i)
	}
}
let in = stdin();
let lock = in.lock();
let nums = lock.lines()
    .map(|line| isize::from_str_radix(line.trim(), 10);
149
As an exception, this content is not under license CC BY-SA 3.0 like the rest of this website.
 
150
Remove last character from string p, if this character is a slash /.
p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, "/")
if p.ends_with('/') { p.pop(); }
151
Remove last character from string p, if this character is the file path separator of current platform.

Note that this also transforms unix root path "/" into empty string!
sep := fmt.Sprintf("%c", os.PathSeparator)
p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, sep)
Alternative implementation:
sep := fmt.Sprintf("%c", filepath.Separator)
p = strings.TrimSuffix(p, sep)
let p = if ::std::path::is_separator(p.chars().last().unwrap()) {
    &p[0..p.len()-1]
} else {
    p
};
Alternative implementation:
let p = p.strip_suffix(std::path::is_separator);
152
Create string s containing only the character c.
s := fmt.Sprintf("%c", c)
let s = c.to_string();
153
Create string t as the concatenation of string s and integer i.
t := fmt.Sprintf("%s%d", s, i)
let t = format!("{}{}", s, i);
154
Find color c, the average between colors c1, c2.

c, c1, c2 are strings of hex color codes: 7 chars, beginning with a number sign # .
Assume linear computations, ignore gamma corrections.
r1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[1:3], 16, 0)
r2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[1:3], 16, 0)
r := (r1 + r2) / 2

g1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[3:5], 16, 0)
g2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[3:5], 16, 0)
g := (g1 + g2) / 2

b1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c1[5:7], 16, 0)
b2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(c2[5:7], 16, 0)
b := (b1 + b2) / 2

c := fmt.Sprintf("#%02X%02X%02X", r, g, b)
Alternative implementation:
var buf [7]byte
buf[0] = '#'
for i := 0; i < 3; i++ {
	sub1 := c1[1+2*i : 3+2*i]
	sub2 := c2[1+2*i : 3+2*i]
	v1, _ := strconv.ParseInt(sub1, 16, 0)
	v2, _ := strconv.ParseInt(sub2, 16, 0)
	v := (v1 + v2) / 2
	sub := fmt.Sprintf("%02X", v)
	copy(buf[1+2*i:3+2*i], sub)
}
c := string(buf[:])
"Too long for text box, see online demo"
155
Delete from filesystem the file having path filepath.
err := os.Remove(filepath)
fs::remove_file(filepath);
156
Assign to string s the value of integer i in 3 decimal digits. Pad with zeros if i < 100. Keep all digits if i1000.
s := fmt.Sprintf("%03d", i)
let s = format!("{:03}", i);
157
Initialize a constant planet with string value "Earth".
const planet = "Earth"
const PLANET: &str = "Earth";
158
Create a new list y from randomly picking exactly k elements from list x.

It is assumed that x has at least k elements.
Each element must have same probability to be picked.
Each element from x must be picked at most once.
Explain if the original ordering is preserved or not.
y := make([]T, k)
perm := rand.Perm(len(x))
for i, v := range perm[:k] {
	y[i] = x[v]
}
let mut rng = &mut rand::thread_rng();
let y = x.choose_multiple(&mut rng, k).cloned().collect::<Vec<_>>();
159
Define a Trie data structure, where entries have an associated value.
(Not all nodes are entries)
type Trie struct {
	c        rune
	children map[rune]*Trie
	isEntry  bool
	value    V
}
struct Trie {
    val: String,
    nodes: Vec<Trie>
}
160
Execute f32() if platform is 32-bit, or f64() if platform is 64-bit.
This can be either a compile-time condition (depending on target) or a runtime detection.
if strconv.IntSize==32 {
	f32()
}
if strconv.IntSize==64 {
	f64()
}
match std::mem::size_of::<&char>() {
    4 => f32(),
    8 => f64(),
    _ => {}
}
161
Multiply all the elements of the list elements by a constant c
for i := range elements {
	elements[i] *= c
}
let elements = elements.into_iter().map(|x| c * x).collect::<Vec<_>>();
162
execute bat if b is a program option and fox if f is a program option.
var b = flag.Bool("b", false, "Do bat")
var f = flag.Bool("f", false, "Do fox")

func main() {
	flag.Parse()
	if *b {
		bar()
	}
	if *f {
		fox()
	}
}
if let Some(arg) = ::std::env::args().nth(1) {
    if &arg == "f" {
        fox();
    } else if &arg = "b" {
        bat();
    } else {
	eprintln!("invalid argument: {}", arg),
    }
} else {
    eprintln!("missing argument");
}
Alternative implementation:
if let Some(arg) = ::std::env::args().nth(1) {
    match arg.as_str() {
        "f" => fox(),
        "b" => box(),
        _ => eprintln!("invalid argument: {}", arg),
    };
} else {
    eprintln!("missing argument");
}
163
Print all the list elements, two by two, assuming list length is even.
for i := 0; i+1 < len(list); i += 2 {
	fmt.Println(list[i], list[i+1])
}
for pair in list.chunks(2) {
    println!("({}, {})", pair[0], pair[1]);
}
164
Open the URL s in the default browser.
Set boolean b to indicate whether the operation was successful.
b := open.Start(s) == nil
Alternative implementation:
func openbrowser(url string) {
	var err error

	switch runtime.GOOS {
	case "linux":
		err = exec.Command("xdg-open", url).Start()
	case "windows":
		err = exec.Command("rundll32", "url.dll,FileProtocolHandler", url).Start()
	case "darwin":
		err = exec.Command("open", url).Start()
	default:
		err = fmt.Errorf("unsupported platform")
	}
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatal(err)
	}

}
webbrowser::open(s).expect("failed to open URL");
165
Assign to variable x the last element of list items.
x := items[len(items)-1]
let x = items[items.len()-1];
Alternative implementation:
let x = items.last().unwrap();
166
Create list ab containing all the elements of list a, followed by all elements of list b.
ab := append(a, b...)
Alternative implementation:
var ab []T
ab = append(append(ab, a...), b...)
Alternative implementation:
ab := make([]T, len(a)+len(b))
copy(ab, a)
copy(ab[len(a):], b)
let ab = [a, b].concat();
167
Create string t consisting of string s with its prefix p removed (if s starts with p).
t := strings.TrimPrefix(s, p)
let t = s.trim_start_matches(p);
Alternative implementation:
let t = if s.starts_with(p) { &s[p.len()..] } else { s };
Alternative implementation:
let t = s.strip_prefix(p).unwrap_or_else(|| s);
168
Create string t consisting of string s with its suffix w removed (if s ends with w).
t := strings.TrimSuffix(s, w)
let t = s.trim_end_matches(w);
Alternative implementation:
let t = s.strip_suffix(w).unwrap_or(s);
169
Assign to integer n the number of characters of string s.
Make sure that multibyte characters are properly handled.
n can be different from the number of bytes of s.
n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s)
let n = s.chars().count();
170
Set n to the number of elements stored in mymap.

This is not always equal to the map capacity.
n := len(mymap)
let n = mymap.len();
171
Append element x to the list s.
s = append(s, x)
s.push(x)
172
Insert value v for key k in map m.
m[k] = v
m.insert(k, v);
173
Number will be formatted with a comma separator between every group of thousands.
p := message.NewPrinter(language.English)
s := p.Sprintf("%d\n", 1000)
Alternative implementation:
n := strconv.Itoa(23489)
s := thousands.Separate(n, "en")
println!("{}", 1000.separated_string());
174
Make a HTTP request with method POST to URL u
response, err := http.Post(u, contentType, body)
Alternative implementation:
response, err := http.PostForm(u, formValues)
let client = reqwest::blocking::Client::new();
let resp = client.post("http://httpbin.org/post")
    .body("this is the body")
    .send()?;
175
From array a of n bytes, build the equivalent hex string s of 2n digits.
Each byte (256 possible values) is encoded as two hexadecimal characters (16 possible values per digit).
s := hex.EncodeToString(a)
let mut s = String::with_capacity(2 * a.len());
a.write_hex(&mut s).expect("Failed to write");
Alternative implementation:
let mut s = String::with_capacity(2 * n);
for byte in a {
    write!(s, "{:02X}", byte)?;
}
176
From hex string s of 2n digits, build the equivalent array a of n bytes.
Each pair of hexadecimal characters (16 possible values per digit) is decoded into one byte (256 possible values).
a, err := hex.DecodeString(s)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatal(err)
}
let a: Vec<u8> = Vec::from_hex(s).expect("Invalid Hex String");
177
Construct a list L that contains all filenames that have the extension ".jpg" , ".jpeg" or ".png" in directory D and all it's subdirectories.
L := []string{}
err := filepath.Walk(D, func(path string, info os.FileInfo, err error) error {
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Printf("failure accessing a path %q: %v\n", path, err)
		return err
	}
	for _, ext := range []string{".jpg", ".jpeg", ".png"} {
		if strings.HasSuffix(path, ext) {
			L = append(L, path)
			break
		}
	}
	return nil
})
178
Set boolean b to true if if the point with coordinates (x,y) is inside the rectangle with coordinates (x1,y1,x2,y2) , or to false otherwise.
Describe if the edges are considered to be inside the rectangle.
p := image.Pt(x, y)
r := image.Rect(x1, y1, x2, y2)
b := p.In(r)
struct Rect {
    x1: i32,
    x2: i32,
    y1: i32,
    y2: i32,
}

impl Rect {
    fn contains(&self, x: i32, y: i32) -> bool {
        return self.x1 < x && x < self.x2 && self.y1 < y && y < self.y2;
    }
}
179
Return the center c of the rectangle with coördinates(x1,y1,x2,y2)
c := image.Pt((x1+x2)/2, (y1+y2)/2)
struct Rectangle {
    x1: f64,
    y1: f64,
    x2: f64,
    y2: f64,
}

impl Rectangle {
    pub fn center(&self) -> (f64, f64) {
	    ((self.x1 + self.x2) / 2.0, (self.y1 + self.y2) / 2.0)
    }
}
180
Create list x containing the contents of directory d.

x may contain files and subfolders.
No recursive subfolder listing.
x, err := ioutil.ReadDir(d)
let x = fs::read_dir(d).unwrap();
Alternative implementation:
let x = std::fs::read_dir(d)?.collect::<Result<Vec<_>, _>()?;
182
Output the source of the program.
package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%s%c%s%c\n", s, 0x60, s, 0x60)
}

var s = `package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
	fmt.Printf("%s%c%s%c\n", s, 0x60, s, 0x60)
}

var s = `
fn main() {
    let x = "fn main() {\n    let x = ";
    let y = "print!(\"{}{:?};\n    let y = {:?};\n    {}\", x, x, y, y)\n}\n";
    print!("{}{:?};
    let y = {:?};
    {}", x, x, y, y)
}
Alternative implementation:
fn main(){print!("{},{0:?})}}","fn main(){print!(\"{},{0:?})}}\"")}
183
Make a HTTP request with method PUT to URL u
req, err := http.NewRequest("PUT", u, body)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
req.Header.Set("Content-Type", contentType)
req.ContentLength = contentLength
response, err := http.DefaultClient.Do(req)
184
Assign to variable t a string representing the day, month and year of the day after the current date.
t := time.Now().Add(24 * time.Hour).Format("2006-01-02")
let t = chrono::Utc::now().date().succ().to_string();
185
Schedule the execution of f(42) in 30 seconds.
timer := time.AfterFunc(
	30*time.Second,
	func() {
		f(42)
	})
Alternative implementation:
go func() {
	time.Sleep(30 * time.Second)
	f(42)
}()
sleep(Duration::new(30, 0));
f(42);
186
Exit a program cleanly indicating no error to OS
os.Exit(0)
Alternative implementation:
defer os.Exit(0)
fn main() {
  exit(0);
}
188
Perform matrix multiplication of a real matrix a with nx rows and ny columns, a real matrix b with ny rows and nz columns and assign the value to a real matrix c with nx rows and nz columns.
c := new(mat.Dense)
c.Mul(a, b)
189
Produce a new list y containing the result of function T applied to all elements e of list x that match the predicate P.
var y []Result
for _, e := range x {
	if P(e) {
		y = append(y, T(e))
	}
}
let y = x.iter()
	.filter(P)
        .map(T)
	.collect::<Vec<_>>();
190
Declare an external C function with the prototype

void foo(double *a, int n);

and call it, passing an array (or a list) of size 10 to a and 10 to n.

Use only standard features of your language.
// void foo(double *a, int n);
// double a[] = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9};
import "C"

C.foo(C.a, 10)
extern "C" {
    /// # Safety
    ///
    /// `a` must point to an array of at least size 10
    fn foo(a: *mut libc::c_double, n: libc::c_int);
}

let mut a = [0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0];
let n = 10;
unsafe {
    foo(a.as_mut_ptr(), n);
}
191
Given a one-dimensional array a, check if any value is larger than x, and execute the procedure f if that is the case
for _, v := range a {
	if v > x {
		f()
		break
	}
}
if a.iter().any(|&elem| elem > x) {
    f()
}
192
Declare a real variable a with at least 20 digits; if the type does not exist, issue an error at compile time.
a, _, err := big.ParseFloat("123456789.123456789123465789", 10, 200, big.ToZero)
let a = Decimal::from_str("1234567890.123456789012345").unwrap();
196
Given an integer array a of size n, pass the first, third, fifth and seventh, ... up to the m th element to a routine foo which sets all these elements to 42.
fn foo(el: &mut i32) {
    *el = 42;
}
a.iter_mut().take(m).step_by(2).for_each(foo);
197
Retrieve the contents of file at path into a list of strings lines, in which each element is a line of the file.
func readLines(path string) ([]string, error) {
	b, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	lines := strings.Split(string(b), "\n")
	return lines, nil
}
let lines = BufReader::new(File::open(path)?)
	.lines()
	.collect::<Vec<_>>();
198
Abort program execution with error condition x (where x is an integer value)
os.Exit(x)
process::exit(x);
199
Truncate a file F at the given file position.
err := os.Truncate(F, position)
200
Returns the hypotenuse h of the triangle where the sides adjacent to the square angle have lengths x and y.
h := math.Hypot(x, y)
fn hypot(x:f64, y:f64)-> f64 {
    let num = x.powi(2) + y.powi(2);
    num.powf(0.5)
}
202
Calculate the sum of squares s of data, an array of floating point values.
var s float64
for _, d := range data {
	s += math.Pow(d, 2)
}
let s = data.iter().map(|x| x.powi(2)).sum::<f32>();
203
Calculate the mean m and the standard deviation s of the list of floating point values data.
m, s := stat.MeanStdDev(data, nil)
204
Given a real number a, print the fractional part and the exponent of the internal representation of that number. For 3.14, this should print (approximately)

0.785 2
fmt.Println(math.Frexp(a))
205
Read an environment variable with the name "FOO" and assign it to the string variable foo. If it does not exist or if the system does not support environment variables, assign a value of "none".
foo, ok := os.LookupEnv("FOO")
if !ok {
	foo = "none"
}
Alternative implementation:
foo := os.Getenv("FOO")
if foo == "" {
	foo = "none"
}
let foo;
match env::var("FOO") {
    Ok(val) => foo = val,
    Err(_e) => foo = "none".to_string(),
}
Alternative implementation:
let foo = env::var("FOO").unwrap_or("none".to_string());
Alternative implementation:
let foo = match env::var("FOO") {
    Ok(val) => val,
    Err(_e) => "none".to_string(),
};
206
Execute different procedures foo, bar, baz and barfl if the string str contains the name of the respective procedure. Do it in a way natural to the language.
switch str {
case "foo":
	foo()
case "bar":
	bar()
case "baz":
	baz()
case "barfl":
	barfl()
}
match str_ {
    "foo" => foo(),
    "bar" => bar(),
    "baz" => baz(),
    "barfl" => barfl(),
    _ => {}
}
207
Allocate a list a containing n elements (n assumed to be too large for a stack) that is automatically deallocated when the program exits the scope it is declared in.
a := make([]T, n)
let a = vec![0; n];
208
Given the arrays a,b,c,d of equal length and the scalar e, calculate a = e*(a+b*c+cos(d)).
Store the results in a.
func applyFormula(a, b, c, d []float64, e float64) {
	for i, v := range a {
		a[i] = e * (v + b[i] + c[i] + math.Cos(d[i]))
	}
}
for i in range 0..a.len() {
	a[i] = e*(a[i] + b[i] + c[i] + d[i].cos())
}
209
Declare a type t which contains a string s and an integer array n with variable size, and allocate a variable v of type t. Allocate v.s and v.n and set them to the values "Hello, world!" for s and [1,4,9,16,25], respectively. Deallocate v, automatically deallocating v.s and v.n (no memory leaks).
type t struct {
	s string
	n []int
}

v := t{
	s: "Hello, world!",
	n: []int{1, 4, 9, 16, 25},
}
struct T {
	s: String,
	n: Vec<usize>,
}

fn main() {
	let v = T {
		s: "Hello, world!".into(),
		n: vec![1,4,9,16,25]
	};
}
210
Assign, at runtime, the compiler version and the options the program was compilerd with to variables version and options, respectively, and print them. For interpreted languages, substitute the version of the interpreter.

Example output:

GCC version 10.0.0 20190914 (experimental)
-mtune=generic -march=x86-64
version := runtime.Version()
211
Create the folder at path on the filesystem
err := os.Mkdir(path, os.ModeDir)
Alternative implementation:
err := os.MkdirAll(path, os.ModeDir)
fs::create_dir(path)?;
212
Set boolean b to true if path exists on the filesystem and is a directory; false otherwise.
info, err := os.Stat(path)
b := !os.IsNotExist(err) && info.IsDir()
let b: bool = Path::new(path).is_dir();
213
Compare four strings in pair-wise variations. The string comparison can be implemented with an equality test or a containment test, must be case-insensitive and must apply Unicode casefolding.
for x in strings
    .iter()
    .combinations(2)
    .filter(|x| x[0].to_lowercase() == x[1].to_lowercase())
{
    println!("{:?} == {:?}", x[0], x[1])
}
214
Append extra character c at the end of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.
if n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s); n < m {
	s += strings.Repeat(c, m-n)
}
s += &iter::repeat(c).take(m).collect::<String>();
215
Prepend extra character c at the beginning of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.
if n := utf8.RuneCountInString(s); n < m {
	s = strings.Repeat(c, m-n) + s
}
if let Some(columns_short) = m.checked_sub(s.width()) {
    let padding_width = c
        .width()
        .filter(|n| *n > 0)
        .expect("padding character should be visible");
    // Saturate the columns_short
    let padding_needed = columns_short + padding_width - 1 / padding_width;
    let mut t = String::with_capacity(s.len() + padding_needed);
    t.extend((0..padding_needed).map(|_| c)
    t.push_str(&s);
    s = t;
}
216
Add extra character c at the beginning and ending of string s to make sure its length is at least m.
After the padding the original content of s should be at the center of the result.
The length is the number of characters, not the number of bytes.

E.g. with s="abcd", m=10 and c="X" the result should be "XXXabcdXXX".
let s2 = iter::repeat(c).take((m + 1) / 2).collect::<String>()
        + &s
        + &iter::repeat(c).take(m / 2).collect::<String>();
217
Create a zip-file with filename name and add the files listed in list to that zip-file.
buf := new(bytes.Buffer)
w := zip.NewWriter(buf)
for _, filename := range list {
	input, err := os.Open(filename)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	output, err := w.Create(filename)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	_, err = io.Copy(output, input)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
}

err := w.Close()
if err != nil {
	return err
}

err = ioutil.WriteFile(name, buf.Bytes(), 0777)
if err != nil {
	return err
}
let path = std::path::Path::new(_name);
let file = std::fs::File::create(&path).unwrap();
let mut zip = zip::ZipWriter::new(file); zip.start_file("readme.txt", FileOptions::default())?;                                                          
zip.write_all(b"Hello, World!\n")?;
zip.finish()?;
Alternative implementation:
fn zip(_name: &str, _list: Vec<&str>) -> zip::result::ZipResult<()>
{
    let path = std::path::Path::new(_name);
    let file = std::fs::File::create(&path).unwrap();
    let mut zip = zip::ZipWriter::new(file);
    for i in _list.iter() {
        zip.start_file(i as &str, FileOptions::default())?;
    }
    zip.finish()?;
    Ok(())
}
218
Create list c containing all unique elements that are contained in both lists a and b.
c should not contain any duplicates, even if a and b do.
The order of c doesn't matter.
seta := make(map[T]bool, len(a))
for _, x := range a {
	seta[x] = true
}
setb := make(map[T]bool, len(a))
for _, y := range b {
	setb[y] = true
}

var c []T
for x := range seta {
	if setb[x] {
		c = append(c, x)
	}
}
let unique_a = a.iter().collect::<HashSet<_>>();
let unique_b = b.iter().collect::<HashSet<_>>();

let c = unique_a.intersection(&unique_b).collect<Vec<_>>();
Alternative implementation:
let set_a: HashSet<_> = a.into_iter().collect();
let set_b: HashSet<_> = b.into_iter().collect();
let c = set_a.intersection(&set_b);
219
Create string t from the value of string s with each sequence of spaces replaced by a single space.

Explain if only the space characters will be replaced, or the other whitespaces as well: tabs, newlines.
whitespaces := regexp.MustCompile(`\s+`)
t := whitespaces.ReplaceAllString(s, " ")
let re = Regex::new(r"\s+").unwrap();
let t = re.replace_all(s, " ");
220
Create t consisting of 3 values having different types.

Explain if the elements of t are strongly typed or not.
t := []interface{}{
	2.5,
	"hello",
	make(chan int),
}
let t = (2.5, "hello", -1);
221
Create string t from string s, keeping only digit characters 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
re := regexp.MustCompile("[^\\d]")
t := re.ReplaceAllLiteralString(s, "")
let t: String = s.chars().filter(|c| c.is_digit(10)).collect();
222
Set i to the first index in list items at which the element x can be found, or -1 if items does not contain x.
i := -1
for j, e := range items {
	if e == x {
		i = j
		break
	}
}
let opt_i = items.iter().position(|y| *y == x);


let i = match opt_i {
   Some(index) => index as i32,
   None => -1
};
Alternative implementation:
let i = items.iter().position(|y| *y == x).map_or(-1, |n| n as i32);
223
Loop through list items checking a condition. Do something else if no matches are found.

A typical use case is looping through a series of containers looking for one that matches a condition. If found, an item is inserted; otherwise, a new container is created.

These are mostly used as an inner nested loop, and in a location where refactoring inner logic into a separate function reduces clarity.
items := []string{"foo", "bar", "baz", "qux"}

for _, item := range items {
    if item == "baz" {
        fmt.Println("found it")
        goto forelse
    }
}
{
    fmt.Println("never found it")
}
forelse:
let mut found = false;
for item in items {
    if item == &"baz" {
        println!("found it");
        found = true;
        break;
    }
}
if !found {
    println!("never found it");
}
Alternative implementation:
if let None = items.iter().find(|&&item| item == "rockstar programmer") {
        println!("NotFound");
    };
Alternative implementation:
items
    .iter()
    .find(|&&item| item == "rockstar programmer")
    .or_else(|| {
        println!("NotFound");
        Some(&"rockstar programmer")
    });
224
Insert element x at the beginning of list items.
items = append([]T{x}, items...)
Alternative implementation:
items = append(items, x)
copy(items[1:], items)
items[0] = x
items.push_front(x);
225
Declare an optional integer argument x to procedure f, printing out "Present" and its value if it is present, "Not present" otherwise
func f(x ...int) {
	if len(x) > 0 {
		println("Present", x[0])
	} else {
		println("Not present")
	}
}
fn f(x: Option<()>) {
    match x {
        Some(x) => println!("Present {}", x),
        None => println!("Not present"),
    }
}
226
Remove the last element from list items.
items = items[:len(items)-1]
items.pop();
227
Create new list y containing the same elements as list x.

Subsequent modifications of y must not affect x (except for the contents referenced by the elements themselves if they contain pointers).
y := make([]T, len(x))
copy(y, x)
let y = x.clone();
228
Copy the file at path src to dst.
func copy(dst, src string) error {
	data, err := ioutil.ReadFile(src)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	stat, err := os.Stat(src)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return ioutil.WriteFile(dst, data, stat.Mode())
}
Alternative implementation:
func copy(dst, src string) error {
	data, err := ioutil.ReadFile(src)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	stat, err := os.Stat(src)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	err = ioutil.WriteFile(dst, data, stat.Mode())
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return os.Chmod(dst, stat.Mode())
}
Alternative implementation:
func copy(dst, src string) error {
	f, err := os.Open(src)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer f.Close()
	stat, err := f.Stat()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	g, err := os.OpenFile(dst, os.O_WRONLY|os.O_CREATE|os.O_TRUNC, stat.Mode())
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer g.Close()
	_, err = io.Copy(g, f)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	return os.Chmod(dst, stat.Mode())
}